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Glossary of Terms

S-1

A drug that is being studied for its ability to enhance the effectiveness of fluorouracil and prevent gastrointestinal side effects caused by fluorouracil. It belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites.

S-phase fraction

A measure of the percentage of cells in a tumor that are in the phase of the cell cycle during which DNA is synthesized. The S-phase fraction may be used with the proliferative index to give a more complete understanding of how fast a tumor is growing.

S100 calcium binding protein A8

A protein that is made by many different types of cells and is involved in processes that take place both inside and outside of the cell. It is made in larger amounts in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, and in some types of cancer. It is being studied as a biomarker for breast cancer. Also called calgranulin A.

S100 calcium binding protein A9

A protein that is made by many different types of cells and is involved in processes that take place both inside and outside of the cell. It is made in larger amounts in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, and in some types of cancer. It is being studied as a biomarker for breast cancer. Also called calgranulin B.

SAB

A temporary loss of feeling in the abdomen and/or the lower part of the body. Special drugs called anesthetics are injected into the fluid in the lower part of the spinal column to cause the loss of feeling. The patient stays awake during the procedure. It is a type of regional anesthesia. Also called spinal anesthesia, spinal block, and subarachnoid block.

sacrum

The large, triangle-shaped bone in the lower spine that forms part of the pelvis. It is made of 5 fused bones of the spine.

safingol

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called protein kinase inhibitors. Also called L-threo-dihydrosphingosine.

SAHA

A drug that is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that does not get better, gets worse, or comes back during or after treatment with other drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. SAHA is a type of histone deacetylase inhibitor. Also called suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, vorinostat, and Zolinza.

saline

A solution of salt and water.

saliva

The watery fluid in the mouth made by the salivary glands. Saliva moistens food to help digestion and it helps protect the mouth against infections.

salivary gland

A gland in the mouth that produces saliva.

salivary gland cancer

A rare cancer that forms in tissues of a salivary gland (gland in the mouth that makes saliva). Most salivary gland cancers occur in older people.

salpingo-oophorectomy

Surgical removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries.

salvage therapy

Treatment that is given after the cancer has not responded to other treatments.

samarium 153

A radioactive substance used in the treatment of bone cancer and bone metastases (cancers that have spread from the original tumor to the bone). Samarium 153 is a radioactive form of the element samarium. It collects in bone, where it releases radiation that may kill cancer cells. It is a type of radioisotope.

samarium Sm 153 lexidronam pentasodium

A drug used to treat bone pain caused by bone cancer and other cancers that have spread to the bone. It contains a radioactive substance called samarium SM 153. Samarium Sm 153 lexidronam pentasodium collects in bone and gives off radiation that may kill cancer cells. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called Quadramet.

saponin

A substance found in soybeans and many other plants. Saponins may help lower cholesterol and may have anticancer effects.

saquinavir mesylate

A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called protease inhibitors. It interferes with the ability of a virus to make copies of itself.

sarCNU

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called sarcosinamide nitrosourea.

sarcoid

An inflammatory disease marked by the formation of granulomas (small nodules of immune cells) in the lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs. Sarcoid may be acute and go away by itself, or it may be chronic and progressive. Also called sarcoidosis.

sarcoidosis

An inflammatory disease marked by the formation of granulomas (small nodules of immune cells) in the lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs. Sarcoidosis may be acute and go away by itself, or it may be chronic and progressive. Also called sarcoid.

sarcoma

A cancer of the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue.

sarcomatoid carcinoma

A type of cancer that looks like a mixture of carcinoma (cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs in the body) and sarcoma (cancer of the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue). The sarcoma-like cells are often spindle cells. Under a microscope, spindle cells look long and slender.

sarcosinamide nitrosourea

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called sarCNU.

sargramostim

A substance that helps make more white blood cells, especially granulocytes, macrophages, and cells that become platelets. It is a cytokine that is a type of hematopoietic (blood-forming) agent. Also called GM-CSF and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

satellite tumor

A type of skin cancer on or under the skin that has spread from the primary tumor through the lymph system and is not more than 2 centimeters away from the original tumor.

satraplatin

A substance being studied in the treatment of prostate and other types of cancer. It contains the metal platinum and may kill cancer cells by damaging their DNA and stopping them from dividing. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called BMS-182751 and JM 216.

saturated fat

A type of fat with certain chemical properties that is usually solid at room temperature. Most saturated fats come from animal food products, but some plant oils, such as palm and coconut oil, also contain high levels. Eating saturated fat increases the level of cholesterol in the blood and the risk of heart disease.

saw palmetto

A shrub that is a member of the palm tree family. An extract made from the berries of this shrub has been studied in the treatment of certain urinary and prostate disorders. The scientific name is Serenoa repens.

SB-715992

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. SB-715992 blocks a protein that tumor cells need to divide. It is a type of mitotic inhibitor. Also called ispinesib.

SB939

A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. SB939 blocks the action of an enzyme called histone deacetylase (HDAC) and may stop tumor cells from dividing. It is a type of HDAC inhibitor.

SC-70935

A substance being studied for its ability to stimulate the production of blood cells during chemotherapy. It is a type of colony-stimulating factor. Also called leridistim.

SC-PEG E. coli L-asparaginase

A drug used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It is a form of the anticancer drug PEG-asparaginase that stays in the body longer. SC-PEG E. coli L-asparaginase is an enzyme that breaks down the amino acid asparagine and may block the growth of tumor cells that need asparagine to grow. It is a type of protein synthesis inhibitor. Also called EZN-2285 and Oncaspar-IV.

scalpel

A small, thin knife used for surgery.

scan

A picture of structures inside the body. Scans often used in diagnosing, staging, and monitoring disease include liver scans, bone scans, and computed tomography (CT) or computerized axial tomography (CAT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. In liver scanning and bone scanning, radioactive substances that are injected into the bloodstream collect in these organs. A scanner that detects the radiation is used to create pictures. In CT scanning, an x-ray machine linked to a computer is used to produce detailed pictures of organs inside the body. MRI scans use a large magnet connected to a computer to create pictures of areas inside the body.

scanner

In medicine, an instrument that takes pictures of the inside of the body.

scapula

One of a pair of triangular bones at the back of the shoulder. The scapula connects the collarbone with the upper arm bone. Also called shoulder blade.

scar tissue

Fibrous tissue that forms when normal tissue is destroyed by disease, injury, or surgery. For example, scar tissue forms when a wound heals after a cut, sore, burn, or other skin condition, or when an incision (cut) is made into the skin during surgery. It may also form inside the body when certain conditions, such as cirrhosis, cause normal tissue to become fibrous tissue.

SCF

A substance that causes blood stem cells (cells from which other types of cells develop) to change into different types of blood cells and increases the number and actions of these cells in the blood. SCF is a type of cytokine and a type of growth factor. Also called kit ligand and stem cell factor.

SCH 54031

A drug used to treat melanoma and hepatitis C. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It is used under the brand name Sylatron to treat melanoma in patients who have had surgery to remove cancer that has spread to lymph nodes. It is used under the brand name PEG-Intron to treat hepatitis C infections. SCH 54031 is a form of interferon alfa (a substance normally made by cells in the immune system) linked to a substance called PEG, which makes the drug stay in the body longer. SCH 54031 is made in the laboratory. It is a type of cytokine and a type of biological response modifier. Also called peginterferon alfa-2b.

SCH 66336

An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called enzyme inhibitors. Also called lonafarnib.

SCH-58500

A substance that has been studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. SCH-58500 is a weakened adenovirus that carries the p53 gene into tumor cells, causing them to die. It is a type of gene therapy. Also called ACN53, rAd/p53, and recombinant adenovirus-p53.

schedule

In a clinical setting, the step-by-step plan for how patients are to be treated; for example, the drug or type of radiation therapy that is to be given, the method by which it is to be given, the amount of time between courses, and the total length of treatment.

Schiller test

A test in which iodine is applied to the cervix. The iodine colors healthy cells brown; abnormal cells remain unstained, usually appearing white or yellow.

schistosome

A parasitic worm that can cause diseases of the liver, bladder, and gastrointestinal tract. One type of schistosome has been linked to bladder cancer. Schistosomes are found in Africa, the Middle East, East Asia, the Caribbean, and South America.

schizophrenia

A group of severe mental disorders in which a person has trouble telling the difference between real and unreal experiences, thinking logically, having normal emotional responses to others, and behaving normally in social situations. Symptoms include seeing, hearing, feeling things that are not there, having false ideas about what is taking place or who one is, nonsense speech, unusual behavior, lack of emotion, and social withdrawal.

Schwann cell

A type of glial cell of the peripheral nervous system that helps separate and insulate nerve cells.

schwannoma

A tumor of the peripheral nervous system that arises in the nerve sheath (protective covering). It is almost always benign, but rare malignant schwannomas have been reported.

SCID

A rare, inherited disease that is marked by a lack of B lymphocytes (white blood cells that make antibodies and help fight infections) and a lack of T lymphocytes (white blood cells that attack virus-infected cells, foreign cells, and cancer cells). Patients with this disease have a high risk of developing viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. Also called severe combined immunodeficiency disease.

scientific review committee

A group of doctors, scientists, and other experts that reviews the detailed plan of a clinical trial for scientific quality and correct study design. There is a scientific review committee at every health care facility that does clinical research. Most clinical trials are reviewed by the scientific review committee before they go to the facility

scientific review panel

A group of doctors, scientists, and other experts that reviews the detailed plan of a clinical trial for scientific quality and correct study design. There is a scientific review panel at every health care facility that does clinical research. Most clinical trials are reviewed by the scientific review panel before they go to the facility

scientist

A person who has studied science, especially one who is active in a particular field of investigation.

scintigraphy

A procedure that produces pictures (scans) of structures inside the body, including areas where there are cancer cells. Scintigraphy is used to diagnose, stage, and monitor disease. A small amount of a radioactive chemical (radionuclide) is injected into a vein or swallowed. Different radionuclides travel through the blood to different organs. A machine with a special camera moves over the person lying on a table and detects the type of radiation given off by the radionuclides. A computer forms an image of the areas where the radionuclide builds up. These areas may contain cancer cells. Also called radionuclide scanning.

scintimammography

A type of breast imaging test that is used to detect cancer cells in the breasts of some women who have had abnormal mammograms, or who have dense breast tissue. It is not used for screening or in place of a mammogram. In this test, a woman receives an injection of a small amount of a radioactive substance called technetium 99, which is taken up by cancer cells, and a gamma camera is used to take pictures of the breasts. Also called Miraluma test and sestamibi breast imaging.

sclera

The white layer of the eye that covers most of the outside of the eyeball.

scleroderma

A chronic disorder marked by hardening and thickening of the skin. Scleroderma can be localized or it can affect the entire body (systemic).

sclerosing adenosis

A benign condition in which scar-like tissue is found in a gland, such as the breast lobules or the prostate. A biopsy may be needed to tell the difference between the abnormal tissue and cancer. Women with sclerosing adenosis of the breast may have a slightly increased risk of breast cancer.

scoliosis

A condition marked by a side-to-side curve of the backbone. The curve is usually shaped like an S or a C. In most cases, the cause of scoliosis is not known. In some cases, scoliosis may be present at birth or it may be caused by muscle spasms, inflammation, tumors, or certain other disorders. It may also occur at some point in time after radiation therapy to the backbone.

screening

Checking for disease when there are no symptoms. Since screening may find diseases at an early stage, there may be a better chance of curing the disease. Examples of cancer screening tests are the mammogram (breast), colonoscopy (colon), and the Pap test and HPV test (cervix). Screening can also include checking for a person

screening mammogram

X-rays of the breasts taken to check for breast cancer in the absence of signs or symptoms.

scrotum

In males, the external sac that contains the testicles.

Scutellaria barbata

An herb that belongs to a group of herbs named the Scutellaria species or scullcap. Both the root and the above-ground part have been used to make herbal medicines. The root has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat lung cancer and other medical problems.

SDS

A rare, inherited disorder in which the pancreas and bone marrow do not work the way they should. Symptoms include problems digesting food, a low number of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell), bone problems, and being short. Infants with the disorder get bacterial infections and are at an increased risk of aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and leukemia. Also called Shwachman syndrome and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.

SDX-102

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites. Also called alanosine.

Se-methyl-seleno-L-cysteine

A substance that contains the element selenium (a nutrient that protects cells against damage) and is found in certain plants such as garlic and broccoli. Se-methyl-seleno-L-cysteine can act as an antioxidant and may help prevent or slow the growth of cancer cells. It is a type of amino acid.

sebum

An oily substance produced by certain glands in the skin.

second primary cancer

Refers to a new primary cancer in a person with a history of cancer.

second-line therapy

Treatment that is given when initial treatment (first-line therapy) doesn

second-look surgery

Surgery performed after primary treatment to determine whether tumor cells remain.

secondary cancer

A term that is used to describe cancer that has spread to another part of the body from the place in which it started. Secondary cancers are the same type of cancer as the original (primary) cancer. Also called secondary tumor.

secondary tumor

A term that is used to describe cancer that has spread to another part of the body from the place in which it started. Secondary tumors are the same type of cancer as the original (primary) tumor. Also called secondary cancer.

secondhand smoke

Smoke that comes from the burning of a tobacco product and smoke that is exhaled by smokers. Inhaling secondhand smoke is called involuntary or passive smoking. Also called environmental tobacco smoke and ETS.

secrete

To form and release a substance. In the body, cells secrete substances, such as sweat that cools the body or hormones that act in other parts of the body.

secretin

A hormone released into the blood by cells in the inner layer of the small intestine. It is released when partly digested food moves from the stomach into the small intestine. Secretin causes the pancreas, liver, and stomach to release other substances that help digest food. Secretin may also be made in the laboratory.

secretin human

A drug used to help diagnose gastrinomas (tumors that cause too much gastric acid to be made) and other problems with the pancreas. It is also used to increase secretions from the pancreas and to help identify a duct called the ampulla of Vater. Secretin human is a form of secretin that is made in the laboratory. Secretin causes the pancreas, liver, and stomach to release substances that help digest food. Also called ChiRhoStim and synthetic human secretin.

secretin stimulation test

A test used to help diagnose problems in the pancreas, such as gastrinomas and pancreatitis. It measures the ability of the pancreas to respond to the hormone secretin (a hormone that causes other substances to be released by the stomach, liver, and pancreas). Secretin is given to the patient by a tube put through the nose or throat into the small intestine and stomach or by injection into a vein. After a certain amount of time, samples are taken to be sent to a laboratory for testing. It is a type of pancreatic function test. Also called pancreatic function test.

sedation

A state of calmness, relaxation, or sleepiness caused by certain drugs. Sedation may be used to help relieve anxiety during medical or surgical procedures or to help cope with very stressful events. Drugs that relieve pain may be used at the same time.

sedative

A drug or substance used to calm a person down, relieve anxiety, or help a person sleep.

sedimentation rate

The distance red blood cells travel in one hour in a sample of blood as they settle to the bottom of a test tube. The sedimentation rate is increased in inflammation, infection, cancer, rheumatic diseases, and diseases of the blood and bone marrow. Also called erythrocyte sedimentation rate and ESR.

sedoxantrone trihydrochloride

A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Sedoxantrone trihydrochloride binds to DNA and stops cells, including cancer cells, from repairing damage to DNA and from making more DNA, RNA, and protein. It is a type of DNA intercalator. Also called CI-958.

SEGA

A benign (not cancer), slow-growing tumor that usually forms in the walls of fluid-filled spaces in the brain. The tumors are made up of large, star-shaped cells called astrocytes. SEGAs are common in patients with tuberous sclerosis (an inherited disorder in which benign tumors form in the brain and other parts of the body). Also called subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.

segmental cystectomy

Surgery to remove part of the bladder (the organ that holds urine). Also called partial cystectomy.

segmental mastectomy

Surgery to remove the part of the breast that has cancer and some of the normal tissue around it. The lining over the chest muscles below the cancer and some of the lymph nodes under the arm may also be removed. It is a type of breast-conserving surgery. Also called partial mastectomy.

segmental resection

Surgery to remove part of an organ or gland. It may also be used to remove a tumor and normal tissue around it. In lung cancer surgery, segmental resection refers to removing a section of a lobe of the lung. Also called segmentectomy.

segmentectomy

Surgery to remove part of an organ or gland. It may also be used to remove a tumor and normal tissue around it. In lung cancer surgery, segmentectomy refers to removing a section of a lobe of the lung. Also called segmental resection.

seizure

Sudden, uncontrolled body movements and changes in behavior that occur because of abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Symptoms include loss of awareness, changes in emotion, loss of muscle control, and shaking. Seizures may be caused by drugs, high fevers, head injuries, and certain diseases, such as epilepsy.

selection bias

An error in choosing the individuals or groups to take part in a study. Ideally, the subjects in a study should be very similar to one another and to the larger population from which they are drawn (for example, all individuals with the same disease or condition). If there are important differences, the results of the study may not be valid.

selective estrogen receptor modulator

A drug that acts like estrogen on some tissues but blocks the effect of estrogen on other tissues. Tamoxifen and raloxifene are selective estrogen receptor modulators. Also called SERM.

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

A type of drug that is used to treat depression. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors slow the process by which serotonin (a substance that nerves use to send messages to one another) is reused by nerve cells that make it. This increases the amount of serotonin available for stimulating other nerves. Also called SSRI.

selenium

A mineral that is needed by the body to stay healthy. It is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer. Selenium is a type of antioxidant.

self-esteem

A feeling of self-worth, self-confidence, and self-respect.

sella turcica

A depression of the bone at the base of the skull where the pituitary gland is located.

semaxanib

A substance that has been studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Also called SU5416.

semen

The fluid that is released through the penis during orgasm. Semen is made up of sperm from the testicles and fluid from the prostate and other sex glands.

seminal fluid

Fluid from the prostate and other sex glands that helps transport sperm out of the man's body during orgasm. Seminal fluid contains sugar as an energy source for sperm.

seminal vesicle

A gland that helps produce semen.

seminal vesicle biopsy

The removal of fluid or tissue with a needle from the seminal vesicles for examination under a microscope. The seminal vesicles are glands in the male reproductive tract that produce a part of semen.

seminoma

A type of cancer that begins in cells that make sperm or eggs. Seminomas occur most often in the testicles or the ovaries. They may also occur in other organs, such as the brain, chest, or abdomen. This happens when cells that have the ability to form sperm or eggs are found in other parts of the body. Seminomas grow and spread slowly.

semiparasitic

In botany, a plant that gets food from a host but also contains chlorophyll and is capable of photosynthesis.

semustine

An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.

Seneca Valley virus-001

A virus being studied in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors and other types of cancer. Neuroendocrine tumors form from cells that release hormones in response to a signal from the nervous system. The virus infects and breaks down these tumor cells but not normal cells. It is a type of oncolytic virus. Also called NTX-010 and SVV-001.

senega root

The root of an herb called Polygala senega. It has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems, including problems of the respiratory system.

senile keratosis

A thick, scaly patch of skin that may become cancer. It usually forms on areas exposed to the sun, such as the face, scalp, back of the hands, or chest. It is most common in people with fair skin. Also called actinic keratosis and solar keratosis.

sensitivity

In medicine, sensitivity may describe how well a test can detect a specific disease or condition in people who actually have the disease or condition. No test has 100% sensitivity because some people who have the disease or condition will not be identified by the test (false-negative test result). Sensitivity may also refer to the way the body reacts to the environment or to drugs, chemicals, or other substances. For example, a person who is sensitive to the sun may have skin that burns easily or get a rash when exposed to the sun. A person who is sensitive to caffeine may need only small amounts of it to feel its effects.

sensor

A device that responds to a stimulus, such as heat, light, or pressure, and generates a signal that can be measured or interpreted.

Sensorcaine

A drug used to relieve pain by blocking signals at nerve endings. It is being studied in the relief of pain following surgery for cancer. It is a type of local anesthetic. Also called bupivacaine, bupivacaine hydrochloride, and Marcaine.

sensory

Having to do with the senses.

sentinel lymph node

The first lymph node to which cancer is likely to spread from the primary tumor. When cancer spreads, the cancer cells may appear first in the sentinel node before spreading to other lymph nodes.

sentinel lymph node biopsy

Removal and examination of the sentinel node(s) (the first lymph node(s) to which cancer cells are likely to spread from a primary tumor). To identify the sentinel lymph node(s), the surgeon injects a radioactive substance, blue dye, or both near the tumor. The surgeon then uses a probe to find the sentinel lymph node(s) containing the radioactive substance or looks for the lymph node(s) stained with dye. The surgeon then removes the sentinel node(s) to check for the presence of cancer cells.

sentinel lymph node mapping

The use of dyes and radioactive substances to identify the first lymph node to which cancer is likely to spread from the primary tumor. Cancer cells may appear first in the sentinel node before spreading to other lymph nodes and other places in the body.

seocalcitol

A substance that is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called vitamin D analogs.

sepsis

The presence of bacteria or their toxins in the blood or tissues.

septate

An organ or structure that is divided into compartments.

septicemia

Disease caused by the spread of bacteria and their toxins in the bloodstream. Also called blood poisoning and toxemia.

sequential AC/Taxol-Trastuzumab regimen

An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat breast cancer. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide, followed by treatment with paclitaxel (Taxol) and trastuzumab (Herceptin). Also called AC-T-T, AC-T-T regimen, and AC-TH regimen.

sequential treatment

One treatment after the other.

SERM

A drug that acts like estrogen on some tissues but blocks the effect of estrogen on other tissues. Tamoxifen and raloxifene are SERMs. Also called selective estrogen receptor modulator.

seroma

A mass or lump caused by a buildup of clear fluid in a tissue, organ, or body cavity. It usually goes away on its own but may need to be drained with a needle. It often occurs after breast surgery.

Seromycin

A drug used to treat tuberculosis. It is also being studied in the treatment of pain and nerve problems (numbness, tingling) caused by chemotherapy and in the treatment of low back pain, autism, certain anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia. Seromycin is a type of antibiotic. Also called D-cycloserine.

serosa

The outer lining of organs and body cavities of the abdomen and chest, including the stomach. Also called serous membrane.

serotonin

A hormone found in the brain, platelets, digestive tract, and pineal gland. It acts both as a neurotransmitter (a substance that nerves use to send messages to one another) and a vasoconstrictor (a substance that causes blood vessels to narrow). A lack of serotonin in the brain is thought to be a cause of depression. Also called 5-hydroxytryptamine.

serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

A type of drug that is used to treat depression and certain other disorders. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors increase the levels of the chemicals serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain. Nerves use these chemicals to send messages to one another. Increasing their levels in the brain helps improve mood. Also called SNRI.

serous

Having to do with serum, the clear liquid part of blood.

serous membrane

The outer lining of organs and body cavities of the abdomen and chest, including the stomach. Also called serosa.

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary

A rare type of ovarian tumor in which the tumor cells secrete a male sex hormone. This may cause virilization (the appearance of male physical characteristics in females). Also called androblastoma and arrhenoblastoma.

sertraline

A drug used to treat depression. It is a type of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Also called Zoloft.

serum

The clear liquid part of the blood that remains after blood cells and clotting proteins have been removed.

serum albumin

The main protein in blood plasma. Low levels of serum albumin occur in people with malnutrition, inflammation, and serious liver and kidney disease.

serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase

An enzyme found in the liver and other tissues. A high level of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase released into the blood may be a sign of liver damage, cancer, or other diseases. Also called alanine transferase and SGPT.

serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase

An enzyme found in the liver, heart, and other tissues. A high level of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase released into the blood may be a sign of liver or heart damage, cancer, or other diseases. Also called aspartate transaminase and SGOT.

serum tumor marker test

A blood test that measures the amount of substances called tumor markers (or biomarkers). Tumor markers are released into the blood by tumor cells or by other cells in response to tumor cells. A high level of a tumor marker may be a sign of cancer.

Serzone

A drug used to treat depression. It belongs to the family of drugs called antidepressant agents. Also called nefazodone.

sesquiterpene lactone

A substance found in some plants. Sesquiterpene lactones may have anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. Plants containing sesquiterpene lactones have been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems.

sestamibi breast imaging

A type of breast imaging test that is used to detect cancer cells in the breasts of some women who have had abnormal mammograms, or who have dense breast tissue. It is not used for screening or in place of a mammogram. In this test, a woman receives an injection of a small amount of a radioactive substance called technetium 99, which is taken up by cancer cells, and a gamma camera is used to take pictures of the breasts. Also called Miraluma test and scintimammography.

sestamibi scan

An imaging test used to find overactive parathyroid glands (four pea-sized glands found on the thyroid) and breast cancer cells, and to diagnose heart disease. The patient receives an injection of a small amount of a radioactive substance called technetium which is bound to another substance called sestamibi. This substance collects in overactive glands, cancer cells, heart muscle, or other tissues and a picture is taken by a gamma camera (a special camera that detects radioactivity).

severe combined immunodeficiency disease

A rare, inherited disease that is marked by a lack of B lymphocytes (white blood cells that make antibodies and help fight infections) and a lack of T lymphocytes (white blood cells that attack virus-infected cells, foreign cells, and cancer cells). Patients with this disease have a high risk of developing viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. Also called SCID.

severe myelosuppression

A severe form of myelosuppression. Myelosuppression is a condition in which bone marrow activity is decreased, resulting in fewer red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It is a side effect of some cancer treatments. Also called myeloablation.

sex cord tumor

A rare type of cancer that forms in the tissues that support the ovaries or testes. These tumors may release sex hormones. Sex cord tumors include granulosa cell, Sertoli cell, and Leydig cell tumors. Also called sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor and sex cord-stromal tumor.

sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor

A rare type of cancer that forms in the tissues that support the ovaries or testes. These tumors may release sex hormones. Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumors include granulosa cell, Sertoli cell, and Leydig cell tumors. Also called sex cord tumor and sex cord-stromal tumor.

sex cord-stromal tumor

A rare type of cancer that forms in the tissues that support the ovaries or testes. These tumors may release sex hormones. Sex cord-stromal tumors include granulosa cell, Sertoli cell, and Leydig cell tumors. Also called sex cord tumor and sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor.

sex drive

The need for sex. Also called sexual drive.

sexual drive

The need for sex. Also called sex drive.

sexuality

A person's behaviors, desires, and attitudes related to sex and physical intimacy with others.

Sezary syndrome

A cancer that affects the skin. It is a form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

SGN-00101

A substance that is being studied in the prevention of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called fusion proteins.

SGN-30

A monoclonal antibody that binds to cells that have the CD30 antigen on their surface, including Hodgkin disease cells and cells from anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. SGN-30 is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of monoclonal antibody.

SGN-35

A drug used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma that did not get better with other treatment. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of lymphoma. SGN-35 is made by combining a monoclonal antibody with an anticancer drug. It binds to a protein called CD30, which is on the surface of some lymphoma cells, and may kill cancer cells. SGN-35 is a type of antibody-drug conjugate. Also called Adcetris and brentuximab vedotin.

SGN-40

A monoclonal antibody that binds to cells that have the CD40 antigen on their surface, including cells from multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. SGN-40 is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of monoclonal antibody.

SGOT

An enzyme found in the liver, heart, and other tissues. A high level of SGOT released into the blood may be a sign of liver or heart damage, cancer, or other diseases. Also called aspartate transaminase and serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase.

SGPT

An enzyme found in the liver and other tissues. A high level of SGPT released into the blood may be a sign of liver damage, cancer, or other diseases. Also called alanine transferase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase.

sham therapy

An inactive treatment or procedure that is intended to mimic as closely as possible a therapy in a clinical trial. Also called placebo therapy.

shave biopsy

A procedure in which a skin abnormality and a thin layer of surrounding skin are removed with a small blade for examination under a microscope. Stitches are not needed with this procedure.

sheep sorrel

A plant that has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have anticancer effects. The scientific name is Rumex acetosella. Also called dock and sorrel.

Sheridan´s Formula

A liquid that has been promoted as a treatment for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. The ingredients thought to be in Sheridan

shiitake mushroom

A dark oriental mushroom widely used as a food. Several anticancer substances have been found in shiitake mushrooms, including lentinan, which has been studied in Japan as a treatment for stomach and colorectal cancer. The scientific name is Lentinus edodes.

shinbone

The larger of two bones between the knee and ankle. Also called tibia.

Sho-saiko-to

A Japanese formulation of seven Chinese herbs that is being studied as a treatment for cancer.

short-term side effect

A problem that is caused by treatment of a disease but usually goes away after treatment ends. Short-term side effects of cancer treatment include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hair loss, fatigue, and mouth sores.

shoulder blade

One of a pair of triangular bones at the back of the shoulder. The shoulder blade connects the collarbone with the upper arm bone. Also called scapula.

shunt

In medicine, a passage that is made to allow blood or other fluid to move from one part of the body to another. For example, a surgeon may implant a tube to drain cerebrospinal fluid from the brain to the abdomen. A surgeon may also change normal blood flow by making a passage that leads from one blood vessel to another.

Shwachman syndrome

A rare, inherited disorder in which the pancreas and bone marrow do not work the way they should. Symptoms include problems digesting food, a low number of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell), bone problems, and being short. Infants with the disorder get bacterial infections and are at an increased risk of aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and leukemia. Also called SDS and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.

Shwachman-Diamond syndrome

A rare, inherited disorder in which the pancreas and bone marrow do not work the way they should. Symptoms include problems digesting food, a low number of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell), bone problems, and being short. Infants with the disorder get bacterial infections and are at an increased risk of aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and leukemia. Also called SDS and Shwachman syndrome.

sialic acid

Any of a group of simple sugar molecules.

sialyl Tn-KLH

A vaccine composed of a substance that enhances immunity plus an antigen found on some tumors of the colon, breast, lung, ovary, pancreas, and stomach.

sibling

A person

sickle cell anemia

An inherited disease in which the red blood cells have an abnormal crescent shape, block small blood vessels, and do not last as long as normal red blood cells. Sickle cell anemia is caused by a mutation (change) in one of the genes for hemoglobin (the substance inside red blood cells that binds to oxygen and carries it from the lungs to the tissues). It is most common in people of West and Central African descent. Also called sickle cell disease.

sickle cell disease

An inherited disease in which the red blood cells have an abnormal crescent shape, block small blood vessels, and do not last as long as normal red blood cells. Sickle cell disease is caused by a mutation (change) in one of the genes for hemoglobin (the substance inside red blood cells that binds to oxygen and carries it from the lungs to the tissues). It is most common in people of West and Central African descent. Also called sickle cell anemia.

side effect

A problem that occurs when treatment affects healthy tissues or organs. Some common side effects of cancer treatment are fatigue, pain, nausea, vomiting, decreased blood cell counts, hair loss, and mouth sores.

side-to-end coloanal anastomosis

A surgical procedure in which the side of the colon is attached to the anus after the rectum has been removed. A section of the colon about 2 inches long is formed into a mini-pouch in order to replace the function of the rectum and store stool until it can be eliminated. This procedure is similar to the J-pouch coloanal anastomosis but a much smaller pouch is formed.

sideropenic dysphagia

A disorder marked by anemia caused by iron deficiency, and a web-like growth of membranes in the throat that makes swallowing difficult. Having sideropenic dysphagia may increase the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Also called Paterson-Kelly syndrome and Plummer-Vinson syndrome.

sidestream smoke

Smoke that comes from the lighted end of a burning tobacco product, such as a cigarette, pipe, or cigar. Sidestream smoke can be a form of secondhand smoke. It contains nicotine and many harmful, cancer-causing chemicals. Inhaling sidestream smoke increases the risk of lung cancer and may increase the risk of other types of cancer. Inhaling it also increases the risk of other health problems, such as heart disease and lung disease.

SIDS

A disorder marked by the sudden and unexpected death of a healthy child who is younger than one year old, usually during sleep. The cause of SIDS is not known. Also called crib death and sudden infant death syndrome.

sigmoid colon

The S-shaped section of the colon that connects to the rectum.

sigmoidoscope

A thin, tube-like instrument used to examine the inside of the colon. A sigmoidoscope has a light and a lens for viewing and may have a tool to remove tissue.

sigmoidoscopy

Examination of the lower colon using a sigmoidoscope, inserted into the rectum. A sigmoidoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease. Also called proctosigmoidoscopy.

sign

In medicine, a sign is something found during a physical exam or from a laboratory test that shows that a person may have a condition or disease. Some examples of signs are fever, swelling, skin rash, high blood pressure, and high blood glucose.

signal transduction

The process by which a cell responds to substances in its environment. The binding of a substance to a molecule on the surface of a cell causes signals to be passed from one molecule to another inside the cell. These signals can affect many functions of the cell, including cell division and cell death. Cells that have permanent changes in signal transduction molecules may develop into cancer.

signal transduction inhibitor

A substance that blocks signals passed from one molecule to another inside a cell. Blocking these signals can affect many functions of the cell, including cell division and cell death, and may kill cancer cells. Certain signal transduction inhibitors are being studied in the treatment of cancer.

signaling pathway

Describes a group of molecules in a cell that work together to control one or more cell functions, such as cell division or cell death. After the first molecule in a pathway receives a signal, it activates another molecule. This process is repeated until the last molecule is activated and the cell function is carried out. Abnormal activation of signaling pathways can lead to cancer, and drugs are being developed to block these pathways. These drugs may help block cancer cell growth and kill cancer cells.

signature molecule

A biological molecule found in blood, other body fluids, or tissues that is a sign of a normal or abnormal process, or of a condition or disease. A signature molecule may be used to see how well the body responds to a treatment for a disease or condition. Also called biomarker and molecular marker.

signet ring cell carcinoma

A highly malignant type of cancer typically found in glandular cells that line the digestive organs. The cells resemble signet rings when examined under a microscope.

significant

In statistics, describes a mathematical measure of difference between groups. The difference is said to be significant if it is greater than what might be expected to happen by chance alone. Also called statistically significant.

SIL

A general term for the abnormal growth of squamous cells on the surface of the cervix. The changes in the cells are described as low grade or high grade, depending on how much of the cervix is affected and how abnormal the cells appear. Also called squamous intraepithelial lesion.

sildenafil

A drug used to treat erectile dysfunction. Sildenafil relaxes the smooth muscle of the penis to allow increased blood flow and erection. It is a type of phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Also called Viagra.

silicon phthalocyanine 4

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. When absorbed by cancer cells and exposed to light, it becomes active and kills the cancer cells. It is a type of photodynamic therapy agent.

silicone

A synthetic gel that is used as an outer coating on breast implants and as the inside filling of some implants.

Silybum marianum

A plant that has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems, including stomach, liver, and gallbladder disorders. The active extract of Silybum marianum seeds is called silymarin. It is being studied in the prevention of liver damage caused by some cancer treatments. Also called milk thistle.

silymarin

A substance obtained from milk thistle seeds that is being studied in the prevention of liver damage caused by certain cancer treatments.

simian virus 40

A virus that infects some types of monkeys. It may also infect humans, and was found in some polio vaccines tested in the early 1960s. Although the virus has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals, there is no evidence that it causes cancer in people. Also called SV40.

simple mastectomy

Surgery to remove the whole breast. Some of the lymph nodes under the arm may also be removed. Also called total mastectomy.

simple nephrectomy

Surgery to remove one kidney.

simple vulvectomy

Surgery to remove the entire vulva (the external female genital organs, including the clitoris, vaginal lips, and the opening to the vagina).

simulation

In cancer treatment, a process used to plan radiation therapy so that the target area is precisely located and marked.

simvastatin

A drug used to lower the amount of cholesterol and other harmful substances in the blood, such as triglycerides. It is also being studied in the treatment of cancer and other conditions. Simvastatin blocks an enzyme that helps make cholesterol in the body. It is a type of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor and a type of statin. Also called Zocor.

single blind study

A type of clinical trial in which only the doctor knows whether a patient is taking the standard treatment or the new treatment being tested. This helps prevent bias in treatment studies.

single nucleotide polymorphism

The most common type of change in DNA (molecules inside cells that carry genetic information). Single nucleotide polymorphisms occur when a single nucleotide (building block of DNA) is replaced with another. These changes may cause disease, and may affect how a person reacts to bacteria, viruses, drugs, and other substances. Also called SNP.

single-photon emission computed tomography

A special type of computed tomography (CT) scan in which a small amount of a radioactive drug is injected into a vein and a scanner is used to make detailed images of areas inside the body where the radioactive material is taken up by the cells. Single-photon emission computed tomography can give information about blood flow to tissues and chemical reactions (metabolism) in the body. Also called SPECT.

Singulair

A drug used to treat symptoms of asthma, such as trouble breathing, tight chest, wheezing, coughing, and runny nose. Singulair blocks the action of a substance that causes airways in the lungs to narrow and causes other symptoms of asthma. It is a type of leukotriene receptor antagonist and a type of antiasthmatic agent. Also called montelukast sodium.

sinus

A cavity, space, or channel in the body. Examples include hollow spaces in the bones at the front of the skull, and channels for blood and lymph. Sinuses may also be found in the heart, brain, and other organs.

sinusoidal obstruction syndrome

A condition in which some of the veins in the liver are blocked. This causes a decrease in blood flow inside the liver and may lead to liver damage. Signs and symptoms include weight gain, yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes, dark-colored urine, and increased liver size. It may occur at some point in time after radiation therapy to the liver and bile ducts or after high-dose anticancer drugs were given before a stem cell transplant. Also called hepatic veno-occlusive disease.

siplizumab

A monoclonal antibody that is being studied in the treatment of certain lymphoproliferative disorders and psoriasis. Also called MEDI-507.

Sipple syndrome

A rare, genetic disorder that affects the endocrine glands and causes a type of thyroid cancer called medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid gland cancer. It may also cause benign (noncancerous) tumors in the parathyroid glands and adrenal glands. The affected endocrine glands may make high levels of hormones, which can lead to other medical problems such as high blood pressure and kidney stones. An itchy skin condition may also occur. Sipple syndrome is caused by a mutation (change) in a gene called RET. Also called MEN2A, MEN2A syndrome, multiple endocrine adenomatosis type 2A, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A syndrome.

sipuleucel-T

A drug used to treat prostate cancer that has spread. It is made from immune system cells collected from a patient with prostate cancer. The cells are treated with a protein that is made by combining a protein found on prostate cancer cells with a growth factor. When the cells are injected back into the patient, they may stimulate T cells to kill prostate cancer cells. Sipuleucel-T is a type of vaccine and a type of cellular adoptive immunotherapy. Also called APC8015 and Provenge.

sirolimus

A drug used to keep the body from rejecting organ and bone marrow transplants. Sirolimus blocks certain white blood cells that can reject foreign tissues and organs. It also blocks a protein that is involved in cell division. It is a type of antibiotic, a type of immunosuppressant, and a type of serine/threonine kinase inhibitor. Sirolimus was previously called rapamycin. Also called Rapamune.

SIRS

A serious condition in which there is inflammation throughout the whole body. It may be caused by a severe bacterial infection (sepsis), trauma, or pancreatitis. It is marked by fast heart rate, low blood pressure, low or high body temperature, and low or high white blood cell count. The condition may lead to multiple organ failure and shock. Also called systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

Sjögren syndrome

An autoimmune disease that affects the tear glands and salivary glands, and may affect glands in the stomach, pancreas, and intestines. The disease causes dry eyes and mouth, and may cause dryness in the nose, throat, air passages, skin, and vagina. It may also cause inflammation in the joints, muscles, and skin; pneumonia; tingling in the fingers and toes; and fatigue. It often occurs with rheumatoid arthritis or other connective tissue diseases.

SJG-136

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called DNA cross-linking agents.

SK&F106615

A substance being studied in the treatment of certain multiple myelomas and other advanced cancers. SK&F106615 may block the growth of tumors and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. SK&F106615 is a type of signal transduction inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called atiprimod and azaspirane.

skeletal

Having to do with the skeleton (bones of the body).

skeleton

The framework that supports the soft tissues of vertebrate animals and protects many of their internal organs. The skeletons of vertebrates are made of bone and/or cartilage.

skin cancer

Cancer that forms in the tissues of the skin. There are several types of skin cancer. Skin cancer that forms in melanocytes (skin cells that make pigment) is called melanoma. Skin cancer that forms in the lower part of the epidermis (the outer layer of the skin) is called basal cell carcinoma. Skin cancer that forms in squamous cells (flat cells that form the surface of the skin) is called squamous cell carcinoma. Skin cancer that forms in neuroendocrine cells (cells that release hormones in response to signals from the nervous system) is called neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Most skin cancers form in older people on parts of the body exposed to the sun or in people who have weakened immune systems.

skin conduction

A change in the heat and electricity passed through the skin by nerves and sweat. Skin conduction increases in certain emotional states and during hot flashes that happen with menopause. Also called electrodermal response and galvanic skin response.

skin graft

Skin that is moved from one part of the body to another.

skin patch

A bandage-like patch that releases medicine into the body through the skin. The medicine enters the blood slowly and steadily.

skin stimulation

The process of applying pressure, friction, temperature change, or chemical substances to the skin to lessen or block a feeling of pain.

skin test

A test for an immune response to a compound by placing it on or under the skin.

skin vesicle

A fluid-filled sac in the outer layer of skin. It can be caused by rubbing, heat, or diseases of the skin. Also called blister.

skinning vulvectomy

Surgery to remove the top layer of skin of the vulva (the external female genital organs, including the clitoris, vaginal lips, and the opening to the vagina). A skin graft may be used to replace the skin that was removed.

SL-11047

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of lymphoma. It belongs to the family of drugs called polyamine analogs.

SLE

A chronic, inflammatory, connective tissue disease that can affect many organs including the joints, skin, heart, lungs, kidneys, and nervous system. It is marked by many different symptoms; however, not everyone with SLE has all of the symptoms. Also called lupus and systemic lupus erythematosus.

sleep apnea

A sleep disorder that is marked by pauses in breathing of 10 seconds or more during sleep, and causes unrestful sleep. Symptoms include loud or abnormal snoring, daytime sleepiness, irritability, and depression.

sleep disorder

A disturbance of normal sleep patterns. There are a number of sleep disorders that range from trouble falling asleep, to nightmares, sleepwalking, and sleep apnea (problems with breathing that cause loud snoring). Poor sleep may also be caused by diseases such as heart disease, lung disease, or nerve disorders.

sleep stage

One of 5 parts or stages of the sleep cycle based on the type of brain activity that occurs during the stage. During stages 1 to 4, a person will feel drowsy, fall asleep, and move into a deep, dreamless sleep. Stage 5 is called rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and it is during this stage that dreams occur. During several hours of normal sleep, a person will go through several sleep cycles that include REM sleep and the 4 stages of non-REM sleep (light to deep sleep).

sleeve lobectomy

Surgery to remove a lung tumor in a lobe of the lung and a part of the main bronchus (airway). The ends of the bronchus are rejoined and any remaining lobes are reattached to the bronchus. This surgery is done to save part of the lung. Also called sleeve resection.

sleeve resection

Surgery to remove a lung tumor in a lobe of the lung and a part of the main bronchus (airway). The ends of the bronchus are rejoined and any remaining lobes are reattached to the bronchus. This surgery is done to save part of the lung. Also called sleeve lobectomy.

slippery elm

The inner bark of this plant has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have antioxidant effects. Also called gray elm, Indian elm, red elm, sweet elm, Ulmus fulva, and Ulmus rubra.

slit-lamp biomicroscopy

An eye exam using an instrument that combines a low-power microscope with a light source that makes a narrow beam of light. The instrument may be used to examine the retina, optic nerve, and other parts of the eye. Also called slit-lamp eye exam.

slit-lamp eye exam

An eye exam using an instrument that combines a low-power microscope with a light source that makes a narrow beam of light. The instrument may be used to examine the retina, optic nerve, and other parts of the eye. Also called slit-lamp biomicroscopy.

SLL

An indolent (slow-growing) type of lymphoma in which too many immature lymphocytes (white blood cells) are found mostly in the lymph nodes. This causes the lymph nodes to become larger than normal. Sometimes cancer cells are found in the blood and bone marrow, and the disease is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The disease is most often seen in people older than 50 years. SLL is a type of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Also called small lymphocytic lymphoma and well-differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma.

small cell lung cancer

An aggressive (fast-growing) cancer that forms in tissues of the lung and can spread to other parts of the body. The cancer cells look small and oval-shaped when looked at under a microscope.

small intestine

A long tube-like organ that connects the stomach and the large intestine. It is about 20 feet long and folds many times to fit inside the abdomen. The small intestine has three parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. It helps to further digest food coming from the stomach. It absorbs nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins) and water from food so they can be used by the body. The small intestine is part of the digestive system.

small intestine cancer

A rare cancer that forms in tissues of the small intestine (the part of the digestive tract between the stomach and the large intestine). The most common type is adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Other types of small intestine cancer include sarcoma (cancer that begins in connective or supportive tissue), carcinoid tumor (a slow-growing type of cancer), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (a type of soft tissue sarcoma), and lymphoma (cancer that begins in immune system cells).

small lymphocytic lymphoma

An indolent (slow-growing) type of lymphoma in which too many immature lymphocytes (white blood cells) are found mostly in the lymph nodes. This causes the lymph nodes to become larger than normal. Sometimes cancer cells are found in the blood and bone marrow, and the disease is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The disease is most often seen in people older than 50 years. Small lymphocytic lymphoma is a type of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Also called SLL and well-differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma.

small-molecule drug

A substance that is able to enter cells easily because it has a low molecular weight. Once inside the cells, it can affect other molecules, such as proteins, and may cause cancer cells to die. This is different from drugs that have a large molecular weight, such as monoclonal antibodies, which are not able to get inside cells very easily. Many targeted therapies are small-molecule drugs or small molecule inhibitors.

smokeless tobacco

A type of tobacco that is not smoked or burned. It may be used as chewing tobacco or moist snuff, or inhaled through the nose as dry snuff. Smokeless tobacco contains nicotine and many harmful, cancer-causing chemicals. Using it can lead to nicotine addiction and can cause cancers of the mouth, esophagus, and pancreas. It may also cause heart disease, gum disease, and other health problems.

smoking cessation

To quit smoking. Smoking cessation lowers the risk of cancer and other serious health problems. Counseling, behavior therapy, medicines, and nicotine-containing products, such as nicotine patches, gum, lozenges, inhalers, and nasal sprays, may be used to help a person quit smoking.

smoldering myeloma

A very slow-growing type of myeloma in which abnormal plasma cells (a type of white blood cell) make too much of a single type of monoclonal antibody (a protein). This protein builds up in the blood or is passed in the urine. Patients with smoldering myeloma usually have no symptoms, but need to be checked often for signs of progression to fully developed multiple myeloma.

SN-38 liposome

A form of the anticancer drug irinotecan that is contained in very tiny, fat-like particles. It may have fewer side effects and work better than irinotecan alone. SN-38 liposome is being studied in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer and other types of cancer. SN-38 liposome blocks the ability of cells to divide and grow. It may stop the growth of tumor cells. It is a type of topoisomerase inhibitor and a type of irinotecan (CPT-11) derivative. Also called liposomal SN-38.

SNDX-275

A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. It blocks enzymes needed for cell division and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Also called entinostat and HDAC inhibitor SNDX-275.

SnET2

An anticancer drug that is also used in cancer prevention. It belongs to the family of drugs called photosensitizing agents. Also called tin ethyl etiopurpurin.

SNP

The most common type of change in DNA (molecules inside cells that carry genetic information). SNPs occur when a single nucleotide (building block of DNA) is replaced with another. These changes may cause disease, and may affect how a person reacts to bacteria, viruses, drugs, and other substances. Also called single nucleotide polymorphism.

SNRI

A type of drug that is used to treat depression and certain other disorders. SNRIs increase the levels of the chemicals serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain. Nerves use these chemicals to send messages to one another. Increasing their levels in the brain helps improve mood. Also called serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor.

snuff tobacco

A type of smokeless tobacco that is made of finely ground or shredded tobacco leaves. It may have different scents and flavors and may be moist or dry. Moist snuff tobacco is placed in the mouth, usually between the cheek and gum or behind the upper or lower lip. Dry snuff tobacco is inhaled through the nose. Snuff tobacco contains nicotine and many harmful, cancer-causing chemicals. Using it can lead to nicotine addiction and can cause cancers of the mouth, esophagus, and pancreas. Snuff tobacco use may also cause gum disease, heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. Using snuff tobacco is also called

SNX 111

A drug used in the treatment of chronic pain. Also called Prialt and ziconotide.

SNX-5422

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. SNX-5422 blocks a protein needed for cells to grow and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of heat shock protein 90 inhibitor.

SNX-5422 mesylate

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. SNX-5422 mesylate blocks a protein needed for cells to grow and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of heat shock protein 90 inhibitor.

soblidotin

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of tubulin inhibitor. Also called TZT-1027.

social service

A community resource that helps people in need. Services may include help getting to and from medical appointments, home delivery of medication and meals, in-home nursing care, help paying medical costs not covered by insurance, loaning medical equipment, and housekeeping help.

social support

A network of family, friends, neighbors, and community members that is available in times of need to give psychological, physical, and financial help.

social worker

A professional trained to talk with people and their families about emotional or physical needs, and to find them support services.

SOD1 inhibitor ATN-224

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. SOD1 inhibitor ATN-224 also blocks enzymes that cells need to divide and grow, and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent and a type of superoxide dismutase inhibitor. Also called ATN-224.

sodium

A mineral needed by the body to keep body fluids in balance. Sodium is found in table salt and in many processed foods. Too much sodium can cause the body to retain water.

sodium borocaptate

A substance used in a type of radiation therapy called boron neutron capture therapy. Sodium borocaptate is injected into a vein and becomes concentrated in tumor cells. The patient then receives radiation treatment with atomic particles called neutrons. The neutrons react with the boron in sodium borocaptate and make radioactive particles that kill the tumor cells without harming normal cells. Also called BSH.

sodium ferric gluconate

A form of the mineral iron that is used to treat anemia caused by low amounts of iron in the blood. Anemia is a condition in which the number of red blood cells is below normal. Sodium ferric gluconate is a type of hematinic and a dietary supplement. Also called Ferrlecit.

sodium salicylate

A drug that is a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Sodium salicylate may be tolerated by people who are sensitive to aspirin.

sodium stibogluconate

A substance being studied in the treatment of certain solid tumors, lymphoma, and myeloma. Sodium stibogluconate may block enzymes needed for cancer growth. It is a type of pentavalent antimonial. Also called SSG.

sodium sulfite

A chemical used in photography, paper making, water treatment, and for other purposes.

sodium thiosulfate

A substance that is used in medicine as an antidote to cyanide poisoning and to decrease side effects of the anticancer drug cisplatin.

soft diet

A diet consisting of bland foods that are softened by cooking, mashing, pureeing, or blending.

soft palate

The back, muscular (not bony) part of the roof of the mouth.

soft tissue

Refers to muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, or other supporting tissue of the body.

soft tissue sarcoma

A cancer that begins in the muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, or other supporting tissue of the body.

solar keratosis

A thick, scaly patch of skin that may become cancer. It usually forms on areas exposed to the sun, such as the face, scalp, back of the hands, or chest. It is most common in people with fair skin. Also called actinic keratosis and senile keratosis.

solid tumor

An abnormal mass of tissue that usually does not contain cysts or liquid areas. Solid tumors may be benign (not cancer), or malignant (cancer). Different types of solid tumors are named for the type of cells that form them. Examples of solid tumors are sarcomas, carcinomas, and lymphomas. Leukemias (cancers of the blood) generally do not form solid tumors.

Soliris

A monoclonal antibody used to prevent red blood cells from being destroyed in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), a red blood cell disorder. Monoclonal antibodies are made in the laboratory and can locate and bind to substances in the body. Soliris blocks a protein in the blood that causes the breakdown of red blood cells. Also called eculizumab.

soluble

Able to be dissolved in a liquid.

solvent

A liquid that is able to dissolve a solid.

somatic

Having to do with the body.

somatic cell

Any of the body cells except the reproductive (germ) cells.

somatic mutation

An alteration in DNA that occurs after conception. Somatic mutations can occur in any of the cells of the body except the germ cells (sperm and egg) and therefore are not passed on to children. These alterations can (but do not always) cause cancer or other diseases.

somatomedin

A protein made by the body that stimulates the growth of many types of cells. Somatomedin is similar to insulin (a hormone made in the pancreas). There are two forms of somatomedin called IGF-1 and IGF-2. Higher than normal levels of IGF-1 may increase the risk of several types of cancer. Somatomedin is a type of growth factor and a type of cytokine. Also called IGF and insulin-like growth factor.

somatostatin receptor scintigraphy

A type of radionuclide scan used to find carcinoid and other types of tumors. Radioactive octreotide, a drug similar to somatostatin, is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive octreotide attaches to tumor cells that have receptors for somatostatin. A radiation-measuring device detects the radioactive octreotide, and makes pictures showing where the tumor cells are in the body. Also called octreotide scan and SRS.

somatotropin

A protein made by the pituitary gland that helps control body growth and the use of glucose and fat in the body. Also called growth hormone.

somnolence syndrome

Periods of drowsiness, lethargy, loss of appetite, and irritability in children following radiation therapy treatments to the head.

sonogram

A computer picture of areas inside the body created by high-energy sound waves. The sound waves are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of the body tissues on a computer screen. A sonogram may be used to help diagnose disease, such as cancer. It may also be used during pregnancy to check the fetus (unborn baby) and during medical procedures, such as biopsies. Also called ultrasonogram.

SOP

Written instructions for doing a specific task in a certain way. In clinical trials, SOPs are set up to store records, collect data, screen and enroll subjects, and submit Institutional Review Board (IRB) applications and renewals. Also called Standard Operating Procedure.

sorafenib tosylate

A drug used to treat advanced kidney cancer and a type of liver cancer that cannot be removed by surgery. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Sorafenib tosylate stops cells from dividing and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called BAY 43-9006, Nexavar, and sorafenib.

sorivudine

An antiviral drug that is being studied as a treatment for herpesvirus. It belongs to the family of drugs called nucleic acid synthesis inhibitors.

sorrel

A plant that has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have anticancer effects. The scientific name is Rumex acetosella. Also called dock and sheep sorrel.

soy

A product from a plant of Asian origin that produces beans used in many food products. Soy contains isoflavones (estrogen-like substances) that are being studied for the prevention of cancer, hot flashes that occur with menopause, and osteoporosis (loss of bone density). Soy in the diet may lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease. Also called Glycine max, soya, and soybean.

soya

A product from a plant of Asian origin that produces beans used in many food products. Soya contains isoflavones (estrogen-like substances) that are being studied for the prevention of cancer, hot flashes that occur with menopause, and osteoporosis (loss of bone density). Soya in the diet may lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease. Also called Glycine max, soy, and soybean.

soybean

A product from a plant of Asian origin that produces beans used in many food products. Soybean contains isoflavones (estrogen-like substances) that are being studied for the prevention of cancer, hot flashes that occur with menopause, and osteoporosis (loss of bone density). Soybean in the diet may lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease. Also called Glycine max, soy, and soya.

spasm

A sudden contraction of a muscle or group of muscles, such as a cramp.

spastic colon

A disorder of the intestines commonly marked by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in a person

specialist

In medicine, a doctor or other health care professional who is trained and licensed in a special area of practice. Examples of medical specialists include oncologists (cancer specialists) and hematologists (blood specialists).

specific immune cell

An immune cell such as a T or B lymphocyte that responds to a single, specific antigen.

specificity

When referring to a medical test, specificity refers to the percentage of people who test negative for a specific disease among a group of people who do not have the disease. No test is 100% specific because some people who do not have the disease will test positive for it (false positive).

SPECT

A special type of computed tomography (CT) scan in which a small amount of a radioactive drug is injected into a vein and a scanner is used to make detailed images of areas inside the body where the radioactive material is taken up by the cells. SPECT can give information about blood flow to tissues and chemical reactions (metabolism) in the body. Also called single-photon emission computed tomography.

spectroscopy

The study of the amount of light that is taken up, given off, or scattered (reflected) by an object. Spectroscopy breaks down light and measures different wavelengths of visible and non-visible light. In medicine, different types of spectroscopy are being used to study tissues and to help make a diagnosis.

speculum

An instrument used to widen an opening of the body to make it easier to look inside.

speech pathologist

A specialist who evaluates and treats people with communication and swallowing problems. Also called speech therapist.

speech therapist

A specialist who evaluates and treats people with communication and swallowing problems. Also called speech pathologist.

sperm

The male reproductive cell, formed in the testicle. A sperm unites with an egg to form an embryo.

sperm banking

Freezing sperm for use in the future. This procedure can allow men to father children after loss of fertility.

sperm count

A count of the number of sperm in a sample of semen. A sperm count may be used as a measure of fertility.

sperm retrieval

Removal of sperm from a man's testis or epididymis by a doctor using a fine needle or other instrument.

spermatic cord

A cord-like structure in the male reproductive system that contains nerves, blood and lymph vessels, and the vas deferens (a coiled tube that carries sperm out of the testicle). It runs from the abdomen to the testicle, and connects to the testicle in the scrotum (external sac). Also called testicular cord.

SPF

A scale for rating the level of sunburn protection in sunscreen products. The higher the SPF, the more sunburn protection it gives. Sunscreens with a value of 2 through 11 give minimal protection against sunburns. Sunscreens with a value of 12 through 29 give moderate protection. SPFs of 30 or higher give high protection against sunburn. Also called sun protection factor.

sphenoid sinus

A type of paranasal sinus (a hollow space in the bones around the nose). There are two large sphenoid sinuses in the sphenoid bone, which is behind the nose between the eyes. The sphenoid sinuses are lined with cells that make mucus to keep the nose from drying out.

sphincter

A ring-shaped muscle that relaxes or tightens to open or close a passage or opening in the body. Examples are the anal sphincter (around the opening of the anus) and the pyloric sphincter (at the lower opening of the stomach).

spiculated mass

A lump of tissue with spikes or points on the surface.

spinal anesthesia

A temporary loss of feeling in the abdomen and/or the lower part of the body. Special drugs called anesthetics are injected into the fluid in the lower part of the spinal column to cause the loss of feeling. The patient stays awake during the procedure. It is a type of regional anesthesia. Also called SAB, spinal block, and subarachnoid block.

spinal block

A temporary loss of feeling in the abdomen and/or the lower part of the body. Special drugs called anesthetics are injected into the fluid in the lower part of the spinal column to cause the loss of feeling. The patient stays awake during the procedure. It is a type of regional anesthesia. Also called SAB, spinal anesthesia, and subarachnoid block.

spinal canal

The narrow, fluid-filled space in the spinal column (the bones, muscles, tendons, and other tissues that reach from the base of the skull to the tailbone). The spinal cord runs through the spinal canal.

spinal column

The bones, muscles, tendons, and other tissues that reach from the base of the skull to the tailbone. The spinal column encloses the spinal cord and the fluid surrounding the spinal cord. Also called backbone, spine, and vertebral column.

spinal cord

A column of nerve tissue that runs from the base of the skull down the back. It is surrounded by three protective membranes, and is enclosed within the vertebrae (back bones). The spinal cord and the brain make up the central nervous system, and spinal cord nerves carry most messages between the brain and the rest of the body.

spinal cord compression

Pressure on the spinal cord that may be caused by a tumor, a spinal fracture, or other conditions. Spinal cord compression may cause pain, weakness, loss of feeling, paralysis, incontinence (inability to control urine or stool), or impotence (inability to have an erection of the penis).

spinal tap

A procedure in which a thin needle called a spinal needle is put into the lower part of the spinal column to collect cerebrospinal fluid or to give drugs. Also called lumbar puncture.

spindle cell sarcoma

A type of sarcoma that contains spindle cells. Under a microscope, spindle cells look long and slender. Sarcomas are cancers that begin in muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, or other connective or supportive tissue in the body. Spindle cell sarcomas usually occur in adults.

spindle cell tumor

A type of tumor that contains cells called spindle cells, based on their shape. Under a microscope, spindle cells look long and slender. Spindle cell tumors may be sarcomas or carcinomas.

spine

The bones, muscles, tendons, and other tissues that reach from the base of the skull to the tailbone. The spine encloses the spinal cord and the fluid surrounding the spinal cord. Also called backbone, spinal column, and vertebral column.

spine cancer

Cancer that begins in the spinal column (backbone) or spinal cord. The spinal column is made up of linked bones, called vertebrae. The spinal cord is a column of nerve tissue that runs from the base of the skull down the back. It is surrounded by three protective membranes, and is enclosed within the vertebrae. Many different types of cancer may form in the bones, tissues, fluid, or nerves of the spine.

spiral CT scan

A detailed picture of areas inside the body. The pictures are created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine that scans the body in a spiral path. Also called helical computed tomography.

spirituality

Having to do with deep, often religious, feelings and beliefs, including a person

spit tobacco

A type of smokeless tobacco made from cured tobacco leaves. It may be sweetened and flavored with licorice and other substances. It comes in the form of loose tobacco leaves, pellets or

spleen

An organ that is part of the lymphatic system. The spleen makes lymphocytes, filters the blood, stores blood cells, and destroys old blood cells. It is located on the left side of the abdomen near the stomach.

splenectomy

An operation to remove the spleen.

splenic

Having to do with the spleen (an organ in the abdomen that makes immune cells, filters the blood, stores blood cells, and destroys old blood cells).

splenomegaly

Enlarged spleen.

sporadic cancer

Cancer that occurs in people who do not have a family history of that cancer or an inherited change in their DNA that would increase their risk for that cancer.

spotted thistle

A plant whose leaves, stems, and flowers have been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. Spotted thistle may have anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. The scientific name is Cnicus benedictus. Also called blessed thistle, cardin, holy thistle, and St. Benedict's thistle.

Sprycel

A drug used to treat certain types of chronic myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Sprycel is also being studied in the treatment of certain other blood diseases and types of cancer. Sprycel binds to and blocks BCR-ABL and other proteins that help cancer cells grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called BMS-354825 and dasatinib.

sputum

Mucus and other matter brought up from the lungs by coughing.

sputum cytology

Examination under a microscope of cells found in sputum (mucus and other matter brought up from the lungs by coughing). The test checks for abnormal cells, such as lung cancer cells.

squalamine lactate

A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors. It prevents the growth of new blood vessels into a solid tumor.

squamous cell

Flat cell that looks like a fish scale under a microscope. These cells are found in the tissues that form the surface of the skin, the passages of the respiratory and digestive tracts, and the lining of the hollow organs of the body (such as the bladder, kidney, and uterus, including the cervix).

squamous cell carcinoma

Cancer that begins in squamous cells. Squamous cells are thin, flat cells that look like fish scales, and are found in the tissue that forms the surface of the skin, the lining of the hollow organs of the body, and the lining of the respiratory and digestive tracts. Most cancers of the anus, cervix, head and neck, and vagina are squamous cell carcinomas. Also called epidermoid carcinoma.

squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

Cancer of the head and neck that begins in squamous cells (thin, flat cells that form the surface of the skin, eyes, various internal organs, and the lining of hollow organs and ducts of some glands). Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck includes cancers of the nasal cavity, sinuses, lips, mouth, salivary glands, throat, and larynx (voice box). Most head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas.

squamous intraepithelial lesion

A general term for the abnormal growth of squamous cells on the surface of the cervix. The changes in the cells are described as low grade or high grade, depending on how much of the cervix is affected and how abnormal the cells appear. Also called SIL.

SR-29142

A drug that may protect healthy tissue from the toxic effects of anticancer drugs.

SR-45023A

An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called bisphosphonates. It affects cancer cell receptors governing cell growth and cell death.

SR49059

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It inhibits a hormone growth factor that causes some cancer cells to divide. It is a type of vasopressin receptor antagonist.

SRS

A type of radionuclide scan used to find carcinoid and other types of tumors. Radioactive octreotide, a drug similar to somatostatin, is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive octreotide attaches to tumor cells that have receptors for somatostatin. A radiation-measuring device detects the radioactive octreotide, and makes pictures showing where the tumor cells are in the body. Also called octreotide scan and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy.

SSG

A substance being studied in the treatment of certain solid tumors, lymphoma, and myeloma. SSG may block enzymes needed for cancer growth. It is a type of pentavalent antimonial. Also called sodium stibogluconate.

SSRI

A type of drug that is used to treat depression. SSRIs slow the process by which serotonin (a substance that nerves use to send messages to one another) is reused by nerve cells that make it. This increases the amount of serotonin available for stimulating other nerves. Also called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

St. Benedict's thistle

A plant whose leaves, stems, and flowers have been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. St. Benedict's thistle may have anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. The scientific name is Cnicus benedictus. Also called blessed thistle, cardin, holy thistle, and spotted thistle.

St. John's wort

An herbal product sold as an over-the-counter treatment for depression. It is being studied for its ability to lessen certain side effects of cancer treatment. Also called Hypericum perforatum.

ST1481

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called topoisomerase inhibitors. Also called gimatecan.

stable disease

Cancer that is neither decreasing nor increasing in extent or severity.

stage

The extent of a cancer in the body. Staging is usually based on the size of the tumor, whether lymph nodes contain cancer, and whether the cancer has spread from the original site to other parts of the body.

stage 0 anal carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in the innermost lining of the anus. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 bladder carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in tissue lining the inside of the bladder. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is divided into stage 0a (papillary carcinoma) and stage 0is (carcinoma in situ), depending on the type of tumor. Stage 0a may look like tiny mushrooms growing from the lining of the bladder. Stage 0is is a flat tumor on the tissue lining the inside of the bladder.

stage 0 breast carcinoma in situ

There are 3 types of stage 0 breast carcinoma in situ: ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), and Paget disease of the nipple. DCIS is a noninvasive condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lining of a breast duct. The abnormal cells have not spread outside the duct to other tissues in the breast. In some cases, DCIS may become invasive cancer and spread to other tissues. At this time, there is no way to know which lesions could become invasive. LCIS is a condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lobules of the breast. This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer. However, having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast. Paget disease of the nipple is a condition in which abnormal cells are found in the nipple only. Also called breast carcinoma in situ.

stage 0 cervical carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in the innermost lining of the cervix. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Also called cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and CIN 3.

stage 0 chronic lymphocytic leukemia

There are too many lymphocytes in the blood, but there are no other symptoms of leukemia. Stage 0 is indolent (slow-growing).

stage 0 colorectal carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in the mucosa (innermost layer) of the colon and/or rectal wall. These abnormal cells may become cancer.

stage 0 disease

A group of abnormal cells that remain in the place where they first formed. They have not spread. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Also called carcinoma in situ.

stage 0 distal extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in the innermost layer of tissue lining the distal extrahepatic bile duct (where the bile duct empties into the small intestine). These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 esophageal carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in the inner (mucosal) layer of the esophageal wall. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is also called high-grade dysplasia.

stage 0 gallbladder carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in the inner (mucosal) layer of the gallbladder. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 gastric carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in the inside lining of the mucosa (innermost layer) of the stomach wall. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 hypopharyngeal carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the hypopharynx. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 laryngeal carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the larynx. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 lip and oral cavity carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the lips and oral cavity. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 maxillary sinus carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in the innermost lining of the maxillary sinus. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 medullary thyroid carcinoma in situ

No tumor is found in the thyroid but abnormal cells are found by screening tests. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 melanoma

Abnormal melanocytes (cells that make melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color) are found in the epidermis (outer layer of the skin). These abnormal melanocytes may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Also called melanoma in situ.

stage 0 Merkel cell carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in the place where they first formed and have not spread. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread to lymph nodes or distant parts of the body.

stage 0 nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in the innermost lining of the nasal cavity or ethmoid sinus. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the nasopharynx. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 non-small cell lung carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the airways. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 nonmelanoma skin carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in the squamous cell or basal cell layer of the epidermis (topmost layer of the skin). These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Also called nonmelanoma carcinoma in situ.

stage 0 nonmelanoma skin carcinoma in situ on the eyelid

Abnormal cells are found in the epidermis (topmost layer of the skin). These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Also called nonmelanoma skin carcinoma in situ on the eyelid.

stage 0 oropharyngeal carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the oropharynx. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 pancreatic carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the pancreas. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 penile carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells or growths that look like warts are found on the surface of the skin of the penis. These abnormal cells or growths may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 perihilar extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in the innermost layer of tissue lining the perihilar extrahepatic bile duct (where the bile duct leaves the liver). These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 testicular carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found in the tiny tubules where the sperm cells begin to develop. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. All tumor marker levels are normal.

stage 0 transitional cell carcinoma in situ of the renal pelvis and ureter

Abnormal cells are found in tissue lining the inside of the renal pelvis or ureter. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is divided into stages 0a (noninvasive papillary carcinoma) and 0is (carcinoma in situ), depending on the type of tumor. Stage 0a may look like tiny mushrooms growing from the tissue lining the inside of the renal pelvis or ureter. Stage 0is is a flat tumor on the tissue lining the inside of the renal pelvis or ureter.

stage 0 urethral carcinoma in situ

Abnormal cells are found on the inside lining of the urethra. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 1 neuroblastoma

Tumor is only found in one area; all of the tumor that can be seen is completely removed during surgery.

stage 2 neuroblastoma

Stage 2 is divided into stages 2A and 2B. In stage 2A, the tumor is in one area only and not all of the tumor that can be seen can be completely removed during surgery. In stage 2B, the tumor is in one area only and all of the tumor that can be seen may be completely removed during surgery, but cancer cells are found in nearby lymph nodes.

stage 3 neuroblastoma

In stage 3 neuroblastoma, the tumor (1) cannot be completely removed during surgery and has spread from one side of the body to the other side and may also have spread to nearby lymph nodes; or (2) is in one area of one side of the body only, but has spread to lymph nodes on the other side of the body; or (3) is in the middle of the body and has spread to tissues or lymph nodes on both sides of the body, and the tumor cannot be removed by surgery.

stage 4 neuroblastoma

Stage 4 neuroblastoma is divided into stages 4 and 4S. In stage 4, the tumor has spread to distant lymph nodes, the skin, and/or other parts of the body. In stage 4S, (1) the child is younger than 1 year; and (2) the cancer has spread to the skin, liver, and/or bone marrow; and (3) the tumor is in one area only and all of the tumor that can be seen may be completely removed during surgery; and/or (4) cancer cells may be found in the lymph nodes near the tumor.

stage A prostate cancer

A prostate cancer stage defined by the Jewett staging system. Stage A prostate cancer is cancer that began in the prostate and is found in the prostate only. It is usually found during surgery for other reasons, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (a condition in which an overgrowth of prostate tissue occurs). Stage A is divided into stages A1 and A2. In stage A1, the cancer cells do not look very different from normal cells. In stage A2, the cancer cells look more abnormal or are in several areas in the prostate.

stage B prostate cancer

A prostate cancer stage defined by the Jewett staging system. Stage B prostate cancer is cancer that began in the prostate and is more advanced than stage A, but has not spread outside the prostate. Stage B is divided into stages B0, B1, and B2. In stage B0, the cancer is detected only by increased blood levels of PSA (prostate-specific antigen). In stage B1, cancer is in one area of one lobe of the prostate. In stage B2, there is more cancer in one or both lobes of the prostate.

stage C prostate cancer

A prostate cancer stage defined by the Jewett staging system. Stage C prostate cancer is cancer that began in the prostate, has grown beyond the outer layer of the prostate to nearby tissues, and may be found in the seminal vesicles (glands that help produce semen). Stage C is divided into stages C1 and C2. In stage C1, the cancer has grown outside the prostate but has not spread to lymph nodes or other places in the body. In stage C2, the cancer has grown outside the prostate and blocks urine flow from the bladder or through the ureters.

stage D prostate cancer

A prostate cancer stage defined by the Jewett staging system. Stage D prostate cancer is cancer that began in the prostate and has spread to lymph nodes near or far from the prostate, or to other parts of the body, often to the bones. Stage D is divided into stages D0, D1, D2, and D3. In stage D0, the level of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is high. In stage D1, the cancer has spread to local lymph nodes only. In stage D2, the cancer has spread to distant lymph nodes and to bones or internal organs. In stage D3, prostate cancer has come back in patients who had received hormone therapy.

stage I adrenocortical cancer

The tumor is 5 centimeters or smaller and is found in the adrenal gland only.

stage I adult Hodgkin lymphoma

Stage I is divided into stages I and IE. In stage I, cancer is found in one of the following places in the lymph system: (1) one or more lymph nodes in one lymph node group; (2) Waldeyer

stage I adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Stage I is divided into stages I and IE. In stage I, cancer is found in one lymphatic area (lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, or spleen). In stage IE, cancer is found in one organ or area outside the lymph nodes.

stage I adult primary liver cancer

There is one tumor and it has not spread to nearby blood vessels.

stage I AIDS-related lymphoma

Stage I is divided into stages I and IE. In stage I, cancer is found in one lymphatic area (lymph node group, tonsils and nearby tissue, thymus, or spleen). In stage IE, cancer is found in one organ or area outside the lymph nodes.

stage I anal cancer

The tumor is no larger than 2 centimeters.

stage I bladder cancer

Cancer has spread to the layer of connective tissue next to the inner lining of the bladder.

stage I breast cancer

Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Cancer has not spread outside the breast. In stage IB, small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter but not larger than 2 millimeters) are found in the lymph nodes and either: (1) no tumor is found in the breast; or (2) the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller.

stage I cancer of the uterus

Cancer found in only the main part of the uterus, not the cervix.

stage I cervical cancer

Cancer is found in the cervix only. Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB, based on the amount of cancer that is found. In stage IA, a very small amount of cancer that can only be seen with a microscope is found in the tissues of the cervix. Stage IA is divided into stages IA1 and IA2, based on the size of the tumor. In stage IA1, the cancer is not more than 3 millimeters deep and not more than 7 millimeters wide. In stage IA2, the cancer is more than 3 but not more than 5 millimeters deep, and not more than 7 millimeters wide. Stage IB is divided into stages IB1 and IB2. In stage IB1, (1) the cancer can only be seen with a microscope and is more than 5 millimeters deep and more than 7 millimeters wide; or (2) the cancer can be seen without a microscope and is 4 centimeters or smaller. In stage IB2, the cancer can be seen without a microscope and is larger than 4 centimeters.

stage I childhood Hodgkin lymphoma

Stage I is divided into stages I and IE. In stage I, cancer is found in one of the following places in the lymph system: (1) one or more lymph nodes in one lymph node group; (2) Waldeyer

stage I childhood liver cancer

The tumor was in the liver only and all of the cancer was removed by surgery.

stage I childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Cancer is found (1) in one group of lymph nodes; or (2) in one area outside the lymph nodes. No cancer is found in the abdomen or mediastinum (area between the lungs).

stage I chronic lymphocytic leukemia

There are too many lymphocytes in the blood and the lymph nodes are larger than normal.

stage I colorectal cancer

Cancer has spread from the mucosa (innermost layer) of the colon and/or rectal wall to the submucosa (layer of tissue under the mucosa) of the colon and/or rectal wall. Cancer may have spread to the muscle layer of the colon and/or rectal wall. Also called Dukes A colorectal cancer.

stage I cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

May be either of the following: (1) stage IA cancer affecting less than 10% of the skin's surface and appearing as red, dry, scaly patches; (2) stage IB cancer affecting 10% or more of the skin's surface and appearing as red, dry, scaly patches.

stage I distal extrahepatic bile duct cancer

Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, cancer is found in the distal extrahepatic bile duct (where the bile duct empties into the small intestine) only. In stage IB, cancer has spread all the way through the wall of the distal bile duct.

stage I endometrial cancer

Cancer is found in the uterus only. Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB, based on how far the cancer has spread. In stage IA, cancer is in the endometrium only or less than halfway through the myometrium (muscle layer of the uterus). In stage IB, cancer has spread halfway or more into the myometrium.

stage I esophageal adenocarcinoma

Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB, depending on where the cancer is found. In stage IA, cancer has formed in the inner (mucosal) layer of the esophageal wall. The tumor cells look a lot like normal cells under a microscope. In stage IB, cancer has formed (1) in the inner (mucosal) layer of the esophageal wall. The tumor cells do not look at all like normal cells under a microscope and they grow quickly; or (2) in the inner (mucosal) layer and spread into the middle (muscle) layer of the esophageal wall. The tumor cells look a lot like normal cells under a microscope.

stage I esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB, depending on where the cancer is found. In stage IA, cancer has formed in the inner (mucosal) layer of the esophageal wall. The tumor cells look a lot like normal cells under a microscope. In stage IB, cancer has formed (1) in the inner (mucosal) layer of the esophageal wall. The tumor cells do not look at all like normal cells under a microscope; or (2) in the inner (mucosal) layer and spread into the middle (muscle) layer or the outer (connective tissue) layer of the esophageal wall. The tumor cells look a lot like normal cells under a microscope. The tumor is in the lower esophagus or it is not known where the tumor is.

stage I gallbladder cancer

Cancer has spread beyond the inner (mucosal) layer to a layer of tissue with blood vessels or to the muscle layer.

stage I gastric cancer

Cancer has formed in the inside lining of the mucosa (innermost layer) of the stomach wall. Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB, depending on where the cancer has spread. In stage IA, cancer may have spread into the submucosa (layer of tissue next to the mucosa) of the stomach wall. In stage IB, cancer (1) may have spread into the submucosa (layer of tissue next to the mucosa) of the stomach wall and is found in 1 or 2 lymph nodes near the tumor; or (2) has spread to the muscle layer of the stomach wall.

stage I gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

The tumor is in the uterus only.

stage I hypopharyngeal cancer

Cancer is found in one area of the hypopharynx only and/or the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller.

stage I intraocular melanoma of the ciliary body and choroid

The tumor is in the choroid only and is size category 1 (not more than 12 millimeters wide and not more than 3 millimeters thick; or not more than 9 millimeters wide and 3.1 to 6 millimeters thick).

stage I intraocular melanoma of the iris

The tumor is in the iris only and is not more than one fourth the size of the iris.

stage I kidney cancer

The tumor is 7 centimeters or smaller and is found in the kidney only. Also called stage I renal cell cancer.

stage I laryngeal cancer

Cancer is found only in the area where it started. Stage I laryngeal cancer depends on where cancer is found in the larynx. If it started in the supraglottis, then cancer is in one area of the supraglottis only and the vocal cords can move normally. If it started in the glottis, then cancer is in one or both vocal cords and the vocal cords can move normally. If it started in the subglottis, then cancer is in the subglottis only.

stage I lip and oral cavity cancer

The tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Cancer has not spread to lymph nodes.

stage I malignant mesothelioma

Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, cancer is found in one side of the chest in the lining of the chest wall and may also be found in the lining of the chest cavity between the lungs and/or the lining that covers the diaphragm. Cancer has not spread to the lining that covers the lung. In stage IB, cancer is found in one side of the chest in the lining of the chest wall and the lining that covers the lung. Cancer may also be found in the lining of the chest cavity between the lungs and/or the lining that covers the diaphragm.

stage I maxillary sinus cancer

Cancer has formed in the mucous membranes of the maxillary sinus.

stage I melanoma

Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, the tumor is not more than 1 millimeter thick, with no ulceration (a break in the skin). In stage IB, (1) the tumor is not more than 1 millimeter thick and it has ulceration; or (2) the tumor is more than 1 but not more than 2 millimeters thick, with no ulceration.

stage I Merkel cell carcinoma

Stage I Merkel cell carcinoma is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller at its widest point and no cancer is found when the lymph nodes are checked under a microscope. In stage IB, the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller at its widest point and no swollen lymph nodes are found by a physical exam or imaging tests.

stage I multiple myeloma

Relatively few cancer cells have spread throughout the body. There may be no symptoms of disease.

stage I mycosis fungoides

Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, less than 10% of the skin surface is covered with patches, papules, and/or plaques. In stage IB, 10% or more of the skin surface is covered with patches, papules, and/or plaques. In stages IA and IB, there may be abnormal lymphocytes in the blood but they are not cancerous.

stage I nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus cancer

Cancer is found in only one area (of either the nasal cavity or the ethmoid sinus) and may have spread into bone.

stage I nasopharyngeal cancer

Cancer (1) is found in the nasopharynx only; or (2) has spread from the nasopharynx to the oropharynx (the middle part of the throat, including the soft palate, base of the tongue, and tonsils) and/or to the nasal cavity.

stage I nonmelanoma skin cancer

The tumor is not larger than 2 centimeters at its widest point and may have one of the following high-risk features: (1) is thicker than 2 millimeters; (2) has spread into the lower layer of the dermis or into the layer of fat below the skin; (3) has grown and spread along nerve pathways; (4) began on an ear or on a lip that has hair on it; or (5) has cells that look very different from normal cells under a microscope.

stage I nonmelanoma skin cancer on the eyelid

Stage I is divided into stages IA, IB, and IC. In stage IA, the tumor is 5 millimeters or smaller and has not spread to the connective tissue of the eyelid or to the edge of the eyelid where the lashes are. In stage IB, the tumor is larger than 5 millimeters but not larger than 10 millimeters or has spread to the connective tissue of the eyelid or to the edge of the eyelid where the lashes are. In stage IC, the tumor is larger than 10 millimeters but not larger than 20 millimeters or has spread through the full thickness of the eyelid.

stage I oropharyngeal cancer

Cancer is 2 centimeters or smaller and is found in the oropharynx only.

stage I ovarian epithelial cancer

Cancer is found in one or both ovaries. Stage I is divided into stages IA, IB, and IC. In stage IA, cancer is found inside a single ovary. In stage IB, cancer is found inside both ovaries. In stage IC, cancer is found inside one or both ovaries and one of the following is true: (1) cancer is also found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; or (2) the capsule (outer covering) of the ovary has ruptured (broken open); or (3) cancer cells are found in the fluid of the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen) or in washings of the peritoneum (tissue lining the peritoneal cavity).

stage I ovarian germ cell tumor

Cancer is found in one or both ovaries. Stage I is divided into stages IA, IB, and IC. In stage IA, cancer is found inside a single ovary. In stage IB, cancer is found inside both ovaries. In stage IC, cancer is found inside one or both ovaries and one of the following is true: (1) cancer is also found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; or (2) the capsule (outer covering) of the ovary has ruptured (broken open); or (3) cancer cells are found in the fluid of the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen) or in washings of the peritoneum (tissue lining the peritoneal cavity).

stage I ovarian low malignant potential tumor

The tumor is found in one or both ovaries. Stage I is divided into stages IA, IB, and IC. In stage IA, the tumor is found inside a single ovary. In stage IB, the tumor is found inside both ovaries. In stage IC, the tumor is found inside one or both ovaries and one of the following is true: (1) tumor cells are found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; or (2) the capsule (outer covering) of the ovary has ruptured (broken open); or (3) tumor cells are found in the fluid of the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen) or in washings of the peritoneum (tissue lining the peritoneal cavity).

stage I pancreatic cancer

Cancer is found in the pancreas only. Stage I is divided into stage IA and stage IB based on tumor size. In stage IA, the tumor is no larger than 2 centimeters and in stage IB, the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters.

stage I penile cancer

Cancer has spread to connective tissue just under the skin of the penis. The tumor cells look a lot like normal cells under a microscope.

stage I perihilar extrahepatic bile duct cancer

Cancer has formed in the innermost layer of the wall of the perihilar extrahepatic bile duct (where the bile duct leaves the liver) and has spread into the muscle and fibrous tissue of the wall.

stage I prostate cancer

Cancer is found in the prostate only. The cancer (1) is found by needle biopsy or in a small amount of tissue during surgery for other reasons; the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is lower than 10 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or (2) is found in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate; the PSA level is lower than 10 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or (3) cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam and is not visible by imaging; cancer is found in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate and the PSA level and Gleason score are not known.

stage I renal cell cancer

The tumor is 7 centimeters or smaller and is found in the kidney only. Also called stage I kidney cancer.

stage I salivary gland cancer

Cancer that is 2 centimeters or less in diameter and has not spread outside the salivary gland.

stage I soft tissue sarcoma

Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, the tumor is low-grade (likely to grow and spread slowly) and 5 centimeters or smaller. It may be either superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue). In stage IB, the tumor is low-grade (likely to grow and spread slowly) and larger than 5 centimeters. It may be either superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue).

stage I testicular cancer

Stage I is divided into stage IA, stage IB, and stage IS, and is determined after a radical inguinal orchiectomy (surgery to remove the testicle) is done. In stage IA, cancer is in the testicle and epididymis and may have spread to the inner layer of the membrane surrounding the testicle; all tumor marker levels are normal. In stage IB, cancer is in the testicle and the epididymis and has spread to the blood or lymph vessels in the testicle; or has spread to the outer layer of the membrane surrounding the testicle; or is in the spermatic cord or the scrotum and may be in the blood or lymph vessels of the testicle; all tumor marker levels are normal. In stage IS, cancer is found anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or the scrotum, and either all tumor marker levels are slightly above normal or one or more tumor marker levels are moderately above normal or high.

stage I thymoma

Cancer is found only within the thymus. All cancer cells are inside the capsule (sac) that surrounds the thymus.

stage I transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter

Cancer has spread through the lining of the renal pelvis and/or ureter, into the layer of connective tissue.

stage I uterine sarcoma

Cancer is found in the uterus only. Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB, based on how far the cancer has spread. In stage IA, cancer is in the endometrium only or less than halfway through the myometrium (muscle layer of the uterus). In stage IB, cancer has spread halfway or more into the myometrium.

stage I vaginal cancer

Cancer is found in the vaginal wall only.

stage I vulvar cancer

The tumor is found only in the vulva or perineum (area between the rectum and the vagina). Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller and has spread 1 millimeter or less into the tissue of the vulva. Cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes. In stage IB, the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters or has spread more than 1 millimeter into the tissue of the vulva. Cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.

stage I Wilms tumor

The tumor was completely removed by surgery and all of the following are true: (1) cancer was found only in the kidney and did not spread to blood vessels of the kidney; (2) the outer layer of the kidney did not break open; (3) the tumor did not break open; (4) a biopsy of the tumor was not done; and (5) no cancer cells were found at the edges of the area where the tumor was removed.

stage IA breast cancer

Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Cancer has not spread outside the breast.

stage IA non-small cell lung cancer

Stage I non-small cell lung cancer is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, the tumor is in the lung only and is 3 centimeters or smaller.

stage IA soft tissue sarcoma

Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, the tumor is low-grade (likely to grow and spread slowly) and 5 centimeters or smaller. It may be either superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue).

stage IB breast cancer

Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IB, small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter but not larger than 2 millimeters) are found in the lymph nodes and either: (1) no tumor is found in the breast; or (2) the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller.

stage IB non-small cell lung cancer

Stage I non-small cell lung cancer is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IB, cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes and one or more of the following is true: (1) the tumor is larger than 3 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters; (2) cancer has spread to the main bronchus and is at least 2 centimeters below where the trachea joins the bronchus; (3) cancer has spread to the innermost layer of the membrane that covers the lung; and/or (4) part of the lung has collapsed or become inflamed.

stage IB soft tissue sarcoma

Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IB, the tumor is low-grade (likely to grow and spread slowly) and larger than 5 centimeters. It may be either superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue).

stage II adrenocortical cancer

The tumor is larger than 5 centimeters and is found in the adrenal gland only.

stage II adult Hodgkin lymphoma

Stage II is divided into stages II and IIE. In stage II, cancer is found in two or more lymph node groups either above or below the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs that helps breathing and separates the chest from the abdomen). In stage IIE, cancer is found in one or more lymph node groups either above or below the diaphragm and outside the lymph nodes in a nearby organ or area.

stage II adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Stage II is divided into stages II and IIE. In stage II, cancer is found in two or more lymph node groups, and both are either above or below the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs that helps breathing and separates the chest from the abdomen). In stage IIE, cancer is found in one or more lymph node groups either above or below the diaphragm and outside the lymph nodes in an organ or area on the same side of the diaphragm as the lymph nodes with cancer.

stage II adult primary liver cancer

There is either (1) one tumor that has spread to nearby blood vessels; or (2) there is more than one tumor, none of which is larger than 5 centimeters.

stage II AIDS-related lymphoma

Stage II is divided into stages II and IIE. In stage II, cancer is found in two or more lymph node groups either above or below the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs that helps breathing and separates the chest from the abdomen). In stage IIE, cancer is found in one or more lymph node groups either above or below the diaphragm. Cancer is also found outside the lymph nodes in one organ or area on the same side of the diaphragm as the affected lymph nodes.

stage II anal cancer

The tumor is larger than 2 centimeters.

stage II bladder cancer

Cancer has spread to the layers of muscle tissue of the bladder.

stage II breast cancer

Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, (1) no tumor is found in the breast or the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Cancer (larger than 2 millimeters) is found in 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes or in the lymph nodes near the breastbone (found during a sentinel lymph node biopsy); or (2) the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes. In stage IIB, the tumor is (1) larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter but not larger than 2 millimeters) are found in the lymph nodes; or (2) larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Cancer has spread to 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes or to the lymph nodes near the breastbone (found during a sentinel lymph node biopsy); or (3) larger than 5 centimeters. Cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.

stage II cancer of the uterus

Cancer that has spread to the cervix.

stage II cervical cancer

Cancer has spread beyond the cervix but not to the pelvic wall (the tissues that line the part of the body between the hips) or to the lower third of the vagina. Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB, based on how far the cancer has spread. In stage IIA, cancer has spread beyond the cervix to the upper two thirds of the vagina but not to tissues around the uterus. Stage IIA is divided into stages IIA1 and IIA2, based on the size of the tumor. In stage IIA1, the tumor can be seen without a microscope and is 4 centimeters or smaller. In stage IIA2, the tumor can be seen without a microscope and is larger than 4 centimeters. In stage IIB, cancer has spread beyond the cervix to the tissues around the uterus.

stage II childhood Hodgkin lymphoma

Stage II is divided into stages II and IIE. In stage II, cancer is found in two or more lymph node groups either above or below the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs that helps breathing and separates the chest from the abdomen). In stage IIE, cancer is found in one or more lymph node groups either above or below the diaphragm and outside the lymph nodes in a nearby organ or area.

stage II childhood liver cancer

The tumor was in the liver only. After the cancer was removed by surgery, a small amount of cancer remains that can only be seen with a microscope.

stage II childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Cancer is found (1) in one area outside the lymph nodes and in nearby lymph nodes; or (2) in two or more areas above or below the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs that helps breathing and separates the chest from the abdomen), and may or may not have spread to nearby lymph nodes; or (3) to have started in the stomach or intestines and can be completely removed by surgery. Cancer may or may not have spread to certain nearby lymph nodes.

stage II chronic lymphocytic leukemia

There are too many lymphocytes in the blood, the liver or spleen is larger than normal, and the lymph nodes may be larger than normal.

stage II colorectal cancer

Stage II colorectal cancer is divided into stage IIA, stage IIB, and stage IIC. In stage IIA, cancer has spread through the muscle layer of the colon and/or rectal wall to the serosa (outermost layer) of the colon and/or rectal wall. In stage IIB, cancer has spread through the serosa of the colon and/or rectal wall but has not spread to nearby organs. In stage IIC, cancer has spread through the serosa of the colon and/or rectal wall to nearby organs. Also called Dukes B colorectal cancer.

stage II cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

Stage II cutaneous T-cell lymphoma may be either of the following: (1) stage IIA, in which the skin has red, dry, scaly patches but no tumors, and lymph nodes are enlarged but do not contain cancer cells; (2) stage IIB, in which tumors are found on the skin, and lymph nodes are enlarged but do not contain cancer cells.

stage II distal extrahepatic bile duct cancer

Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, cancer has spread from the distal extrahepatic bile duct (where the bile duct empties into the small intestine) to the gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, or other nearby organs. In stage IIB, cancer has spread from the distal extrahepatic bile duct to nearby lymph nodes. Cancer may have spread through the wall of the distal extrahepatic bile duct or to the gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, or other nearby organs.

stage II endometrial cancer

Cancer has spread into connective tissue of the cervix, but has not spread outside the uterus.

stage II esophageal adenocarcinoma

Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB, depending on where the cancer has spread. In stage IIA, cancer has spread into the middle (muscle) layer of the esophageal wall. The tumor cells do not look at all like normal cells under a microscope and they grow quickly. In stage IIB, cancer (1) has spread into the outer (connective tissue) layer of the esophageal wall; or (2) is in the inner (mucosal) layer and may have spread into the middle (muscle) layer of the esophageal wall. Cancer is found in 1 or 2 lymph nodes near the tumor.

stage II esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB, depending on where the cancer has spread. In stage IIA, cancer has spread (1) into the middle (muscle) layer or the outer (connective tissue) layer of the esophageal wall. The tumor cells look a lot like normal cells under a microscope. The tumor is in either the upper or middle esophagus; or (2) into the middle (muscle) layer or the outer (connective tissue) layer of the esophageal wall. The tumor cells do not look at all like normal cells under a microscope. The tumor is in the lower esophagus or it is not known where the tumor is. In stage IIB, cancer (1) has spread into the middle (muscle) layer or the outer (connective tissue) layer of the esophageal wall. The tumor cells do not look at all like normal cells under a microscope. The tumor is in either the upper or middle esophagus; or (2) is in the inner (mucosal) layer and may have spread into the middle (muscle) layer of the esophageal wall. Cancer is found in 1 or 2 lymph nodes near the tumor.

stage II gallbladder cancer

Cancer has spread beyond the muscle layer to the connective tissue around the muscle.

stage II gastric cancer

Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB, depending on where the cancer has spread. In stage IIA, cancer (1) has spread to the subserosa (layer of tissue next to the serosa) of the stomach wall; or (2) has spread to the muscle layer of the stomach wall and is found in 1 or 2 lymph nodes near the tumor; or (3) may have spread to the submucosa (layer of tissue next to the mucosa) of the stomach wall and is found in 3 to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor. In stage IIB, cancer (1) has spread to the serosa (outermost layer) of the stomach wall; or (2) has spread to the subserosa (layer of tissue next to the serosa) of the stomach wall and is found in 1 or 2 lymph nodes near the tumor; or (3) has spread to the muscle layer of the stomach wall and is found in 3 to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor; or (4) may have spread to the submucosa (layer of tissue next to the mucosa) of the stomach wall and is found in 7 or more lymph nodes near the tumor.

stage II gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

Cancer has spread outside of the uterus to the ovary, fallopian tube, vagina, and/or the ligaments that support the uterus.

stage II hypopharyngeal cancer

The tumor is either (1) larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 4 centimeters and has not spread to the larynx (voice box); or (2) found in more than one area of the hypopharynx or in nearby tissues.

stage II intraocular melanoma of the iris

Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, the tumor (1) is in the iris only and is more than one fourth the size of the iris; or (2) is in the iris only and has caused glaucoma; or (3) has spread next to and/or into the ciliary body, choroid, or both. The tumor has caused glaucoma. In stage IIB, the tumor has spread next to and/or into the ciliary body, choroid, or both, and has also spread into the sclera. The tumor has caused glaucoma.

stage II kidney cancer

The tumor is larger than 7 centimeters and is found in the kidney only. Also called stage II renal cell cancer.

stage II laryngeal cancer

Stage II depends on where the cancer started. If it started in the supraglottis, then cancer is in more than one area of the supraglottis or surrounding tissue. If it started in the glottis, then cancer has spread to the supraglottis and/or the subglottis, and/or the vocal cords cannot move normally. If it started in the subglottis, then cancer has spread to one or both vocal cords, which may not move normally.

stage II lip and oral cavity cancer

The tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 4 centimeters, and cancer has not spread to lymph nodes.

stage II malignant mesothelioma

Cancer is found in one side of the chest in the lining of the chest wall, the lining of the chest cavity between the lungs, the lining that covers the diaphragm, and the lining that covers the lung. Also, cancer has spread into the diaphragm muscle and/or the lung.

stage II maxillary sinus cancer

Cancer has spread to bone around the maxillary sinus, including the roof of the mouth and the nose, but not to bone at the back of the maxillary sinus or the base of the skull.

stage II melanoma

Stage II is divided into stages IIA, IIB, and IIC. In stage IIA, (1) the tumor is more than 1 but not more than 2 millimeters thick, with ulceration (a break in the skin); or (2) more than 2 but not more than 4 millimeters thick, with no ulceration. In stage IIB, (1) the tumor is either more than 2 but not more than 4 millimeters thick, with ulceration; or (2) more than 4 millimeters thick, with no ulceration. In stage IIC, the tumor is more than 4 millimeters thick, with ulceration.

stage II Merkel cell carcinoma

Stage II Merkel cell carcinoma is divided into stages IIA, IIB, and IIC. In stage IIA, the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters and no cancer is found when the lymph nodes are checked under a microscope. In stage IIB, the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters and no swollen lymph nodes are found by a physical exam or imaging tests. In stage IIC, the tumor may be any size and has spread to nearby bone, muscle, connective tissue, or cartilage. It is has not spread to lymph nodes or distant parts of the body.

stage II multiple myeloma

Cancer in which a moderate number of cancer cells have spread throughout the body.

stage II mycosis fungoides

Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, any amount of the skin surface is covered with patches, papules, and/or plaques. Lymph nodes are enlarged but cancer has not spread to them. In stage IIB, one or more tumors that are 1 centimeter or larger are found on the skin. Lymph nodes may be enlarged but cancer has not spread to them. In stages IIA and IIB, there may be abnormal lymphocytes in the blood but they are not cancerous.

stage II nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus cancer

Cancer is found in two areas (of either the nasal cavity or the ethmoid sinus) that are near each other or has spread to an area next to the sinuses. Cancer may also have spread into bone.

stage II nasopharyngeal cancer

Cancer (1) is found in the nasopharynx only or has spread from the nasopharynx to the oropharynx (the middle part of the throat, including the soft palate, base of the tongue, and tonsils) and/or to the nasal cavity. Cancer has spread to one or more lymph nodes on one side of the neck and/or to lymph nodes behind the pharynx, and the affected lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller; or (2) is found in the parapharyngeal space (area near the pharynx, between the base of the skull and the lower jaw). Cancer may have spread to one or more lymph nodes on one side of the neck and/or to lymph nodes behind the pharynx, and the affected lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller.

stage II nonmelanoma skin cancer

The tumor is larger than 2 centimeters at its widest point; or the tumor is any size and has two or more of the following high-risk features: (1) is thicker than 2 millimeters; (2) has spread into the lower layer of the dermis or into the layer of fat below the skin; (3) has grown and spread along nerve pathways; (4) began on an ear or on a lip that has hair on it; or (5) has cells that look very different from normal cells under a microscope.

stage II nonmelanoma skin cancer on the eyelid

The tumor (1) is larger than 20 millimeters; or (2) has spread to nearby parts of the eye or eye socket; or (3) has spread to spaces around the nerves in the eyelid.

stage II oropharyngeal cancer

Cancer is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 4 centimeters and is found in the oropharynx only.

stage II ovarian epithelial cancer

Cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has spread into other areas of the pelvis. Stage II is divided into stages IIA, IIB, and IIC. In stage IIA, cancer has spread to the uterus and/or the fallopian tubes. In stage IIB, cancer has spread to other tissue within the pelvis. In stage IIC, cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has spread to the uterus and/or fallopian tubes, or to other tissue within the pelvis. Also, one of the following is true: (1) cancer is also found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; or (2) the capsule (outer covering) of the ovary has ruptured (broken open); or (3) cancer cells are found in the fluid of the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen) or in washings of the peritoneum (tissue lining the peritoneal cavity).

stage II ovarian germ cell tumor

Cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has spread into other areas of the pelvis. Stage II is divided into stages IIA, IIB, and IIC. In stage IIA, cancer has spread to the uterus and/or fallopian tubes (the long slender tubes through which eggs pass from the ovaries to the uterus). In stage IIB, cancer has spread to other tissue within the pelvis. In stage IIC, cancer is found inside one or both ovaries and has spread to the uterus and/or fallopian tubes, or to other tissue within the pelvis. Also, one of the following is true: (1) cancer is found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; or (2) the capsule (outer covering) of the ovary has ruptured (broken open); or (3) cancer cells are found in the fluid of the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen) or in washings of the peritoneum (tissue lining the peritoneal cavity).

stage II ovarian low malignant potential tumor

The tumor is found in one or both ovaries and has spread into other areas of the pelvis. Stage II is divided into stages IIA, IIB, and IIC. In stage IIA, the tumor has spread to the uterus and/or fallopian tubes (the long slender tubes through which eggs pass from the ovaries to the uterus). In stage IIB, the tumor has spread to other tissue within the pelvis. In stage IIC, the tumor is found inside one or both ovaries and has spread to the uterus and/or fallopian tubes, or to other tissue within the pelvis. Also, one of the following is true: (1) tumor cells are found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; or (2) the capsule (outer covering) of the ovary has ruptured (broken open); or (3) tumor cells are found in the fluid of the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen) or in washings of the peritoneum (tissue lining the peritoneal cavity).

stage II pancreatic cancer

Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB, based on where the cancer has spread. In stage IIA, cancer has spread to nearby tissue and organs but has not spread to nearby lymph nodes. In stage IIB, cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and may have spread to nearby tissue and organs.

stage II penile cancer

Cancer has spread (1) to connective tissue just under the skin of the penis; cancer has spread to lymph vessels or blood vessels, or the tumor cells may look very different from normal cells under a microscope; or (2) through connective tissue to erectile tissue (spongy tissue that fills with blood to make an erection); or (3) beyond erectile tissue to the urethra.

stage II perihilar extrahepatic bile duct cancer

Cancer has spread through the wall of the perihilar extrahepatic bile duct (where the bile duct leaves the liver) to nearby fatty tissue or to the liver.

stage II prostate cancer

Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, cancer is found (1) by needle biopsy or in a small amount of tissue during surgery for other reasons; the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 7; or (2) by needle biopsy or in a small amount of tissue during surgery for other reasons; the PSA level is at least 10 but lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or (3) in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate; the PSA level is at least 10 but lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or (4) in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate; the PSA level is lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 7; or (5) in more than one-half of one lobe of the prostate; the PSA level is lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 7 or lower; or (6) in more than one-half of one lobe of the prostate, and the PSA level and Gleason score are not known. In stage IIB, cancer (1) is found in opposite sides of the prostate; the PSA can be any level and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10; or (2) cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam and is not visible by imaging, and the tumor has not spread outside the prostate; the PSA level is 20 or higher and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10; or (3) cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam and is not visible by imaging, and the tumor has not spread outside the prostate; the PSA can be any level and the Gleason score is 8 or higher.

stage II renal cell cancer

The tumor is larger than 7 centimeters and is found in the kidney only. Also called stage II kidney cancer.

stage II salivary gland cancer

Cancer that is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 4 centimeters in diameter and has not spread outside the salivary gland.

stage II soft tissue sarcoma

Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, the tumor is mid-grade (somewhat likely to grow and spread quickly) or high-grade (likely to grow and spread quickly) and 5 centimeters or smaller. It may be either superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue). In stage IIB, the tumor is mid-grade (somewhat likely to grow and spread quickly) and larger than 5 centimeters. It may be either superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue).

stage II testicular cancer

Stage II is divided into stage IIA, stage IIB, and stage IIC, and is determined after a radical inguinal orchiectomy (surgery to remove the testicle) is done. In stage IIA, cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; and has spread to up to 5 lymph nodes in the abdomen (none larger than 2 centimeters); all tumor marker levels are normal or slightly above normal. In stage IIB, cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; and has spread to up to 5 lymph nodes in the abdomen (at least one of the lymph nodes is larger than 2 centimeters, but none is larger than 5 centimeters), or has spread to more than 5 lymph nodes (the lymph nodes are not larger than 5 centimeters); all tumor marker levels are normal or slightly above normal. In stage IIC, cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; and has spread to a lymph node in the abdomen that is larger than 5 centimeters; all tumor marker levels are normal or slightly above normal.

stage II thymoma

Cancer has spread through the capsule (sac) that surrounds the thymus and into the fat around the thymus or into the lining of the chest cavity.

stage II transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter

Cancer has spread through the layer of connective tissue to the muscle layer of the renal pelvis and/or ureter.

stage II uterine sarcoma

Cancer has spread into connective tissue of the cervix, but has not spread outside the uterus.

stage II vaginal cancer

Cancer has spread through the wall of the vagina to the tissue around the vagina. Cancer has not spread to the wall of the pelvis.

stage II vulvar cancer

The tumor may be any size and has spread into the lower part of the urethra, the lower part of the vagina, or the anus. Cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.

stage II Wilms tumor

Cancer spread out of the kidney to nearby soft tissue or to blood vessels of the kidney and was completely removed by surgery. No cancer cells were found at the edges of the area where the cancer was removed.

stage IIA breast cancer

Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, (1) no tumor is found in the breast or the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Cancer (larger than 2 millimeters) is found in 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes or in the lymph nodes near the breastbone (found during a sentinel lymph node biopsy); or (2) the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.

stage IIA intraocular melanoma of the ciliary body and choroid

Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, the tumor (1) has spread to the ciliary body and is size category 1 (not more than 12 millimeters wide and not more than 3 millimeters thick; or not more than 9 millimeters wide and 3.1 to 6 millimeters thick); or (2) may have spread to the ciliary body and is size category 1. The tumor has spread through the sclera to the outside of the eyeball. The part of the tumor outside the eyeball is not more than 5 millimeters thick; or (3) is in the choroid only and is size category 2 (12.1 to 18 millimeters wide and not more than 3 millimeters thick; or 9.1 to 15 millimeters wide and 3.1 to 6 millimeters thick; or not more than 12 millimeters wide and 6.1 to 9 millimeters thick).

stage IIA non-small cell lung cancer

Stage II non-small cell lung cancer is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, cancer has spread to lymph nodes on the same side of the chest as the tumor. Also, one or more of the following is true: (1) the tumor is not larger than 5 centimeters; (2) cancer has spread to the main bronchus and is at least 2 centimeters below where the trachea joins the bronchus; (3) cancer has spread to the innermost layer of the membrane that covers the lung; and/or (4) part of the lung has collapsed or become inflamed. OR in stage IIA, cancer has not spread to lymph nodes and one or more of the following is true: (1) the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters but not larger than 7 centimeters; (2) cancer has spread to the main bronchus and is at least 2 centimeters below where the trachea joins the bronchus; (3) cancer has spread to the innermost layer of the membrane that covers the lung; and/or (4) part of the lung has collapsed or become inflamed.

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